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Chapter 9: Energy Metabolism
Terms in this set (38)
What are cells?
Cells are the smallest functional unit of the body
Cells have the ability to...
Differentiate and Multiply (grow), take in nutrients, make and use energy, conduct metabolic reactions and functions, excrete waste
What is Metabolism?
Metabolism refers to the chemical processes and reactions involved in maintaining life
Metabolism enables us to release energy in the form of _________ from carbohydrate, fat, protein, and alcohol.
adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
What is metabolism regulated by?
Vitamins and Minerals
Anabolism is ?
Synthesis or genesis or larger compounds
Glucose is the building blocks to? Fatty acids and glycerol? Amino acids?
Fatty Acids and Glycerol: Triglycerides
Amino Acids: Protein
Does anabolism require atp?
When does Anabolism start?
Insulin and Growth Hormone
The breaking down of compounds (lysis)
Catabolism can produce?
Co2, H2O, Atp, urea and ammonia
When does Catabolism start?
Glucagon, Epinephrine and Cortisol
Food Energy -->
Chemical energy, mechanical energy and heat
ATP characteristics (3)
Body's main source of energy, stored in small amounts and forms ADP and AMP when used
An example of chemical energy and its a high energy source when stored in muscles, forms ate quickly
Atp is formed by:
Aerobic (requires o2) or anaerobic (no o2) catabolism
Energy from atp can be used in the human body to...
Contract muscles, conduct nerve impulses, synthesize new compound, pump molecules across membranes
Glucose (carbs) from cells come from:
Blood or glycogen that is reserved in skeletal muscle
Aerobic catabolism of one glucose forms ___ ATP? Anaerobic forms ____?
The five steps of Aerobic Catabolism and their outcomes (if any)
1. Glycogenolysis - produces glucose from glycogen
2. Glycolysis - 1 glucose makes 2 pyruvate, 2 NADH and 2 ATPs
3. Each pyruvate is oxidized further to AcetylCoA and NADH
4. Citric Acid Cycle ( in the mitochondria) - Each acetyl COA makes 3 NADH, 1 FADH2, 1 ATP, ! CO2
5. Electron Transport Chain - Each nah and fadh2 are oxidized to produce nad+, FAD and 26 atps
Anaerobic Catabolism of Glucose
Occurs in the cells with no mitochondria (red blood cells) or in all cells that lack oxygen
When there is no energy, pyruvate and ADH cover to ....
Lactate and NAD+
Which two catabolic process occur in the anaerobic catabolism of glucose?
Glygcogenolysis, and gycolysis
What organ converts lactate back to glucose?
Triglycerides are broken down into fatty acids and glycerol and released into the blood (epinephrine / fasting and exercise)
Fatty Acid Oxidation
Takes place in muscle and liver cells
One fatty acid produces...
many acetyl CoAs, FADH2 and NADH and enters the citric acid cycle
Ketogenesis (Alternative Fat Catabolism)
Occurs in the liver only
Acetyl coA will form ketone bodies instead bc they are glucose or insulin deficient
Protein from skeletal muscle is degraded into free amino acids
What does protein catabolism lead to?
loss of nitrogen group from amino acid to produce ammonia and kept acid
Kept acid can eventually form...
Glucose or ketone bodies, eventually atp
Forming glucose from deaminated amino acids and other
Fatty acids can not convert to glucose
Disposing of Ammonia
ammonia is removed from liver to produce urea which is released back in blood and kidneys to produce urine
Anabolism of glucose: Glycogenesis (3 steps)
glucose forms glycogen
2. Dietary fructose and galactose converted into glucose by liver cells
3. Lactate, glycerol and deaminated amino acids can be converted into glucose by liver
Anabolism of Fat (3 steps)
Dietary Fat are delivered to fat cells for storage or muscle tissue for energy
2. excess carbs and proteins are converted into fatty acids (lipogenesis) by liver for storage in fat cells
3. Alc is also converted into fatty acids by the liver
Anabolism of protein (2)
Amino acids from dietary proteins are utilized to make the bodys proteins ( when physical activity)
glucose can be used to make nonessential amino acids
3 things to screen in newborns
PKU ( unable to metabolize phenlylaline into tyrosine)
Galactosemia (unable to metabolize galactose to glucose)
Glycogen storage disease (unable to metabolize glycogen)
Recommended textbook explanations
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Kenneth R. Miller, Levine
Biology: Exploring Life (Florida)
Campbell, Heyden, Williamson
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