transport in plants: cambridge AS biology vocabulary
Terms in this set (46)
plants such as grasses with long and narrow leaves.
plants that have leaves with blades and stalks, or petioles.
a continuous layer on the outside of the plant. one cell thick and provides protection.
roots have these to increase surface area for absorption of water and mineral salts.
There are fungi located in or on their roots which form associations.
waterproof layer of cuticin secreted by epidermal cell, thicker in plants adapted to dry conditions. protects from dehydration and infection.
one cell thick and surrounds the vascular tissue in stems and roots.
cell walls in the endodermis have this in a thick, waterproof, waxy band.
the thick, waterproof, waxy band of suberin in cell walls in the endodermis.
usually suberin deposits get more extensive, but in these cells they don't and water is continually allowed to pass freely.
an outer region of cells.
made up of thin-walled cells used as a packing tissue. very metabolically active cells that can store foods like starch, and help to support the plant when fully turgid. air spaces between allow gas exchange. water and mineral salts are transported through the walls and through living contents of the cell.
a modified form of parenchyma with extra cellulose deposited at the corners of the cells. (Provides strength)
pores in the epidermis of leaves which allow entry of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis
Layer of cells that is found inside of the endodermis and by vascular tissue. Formed by sclerenchyma which provides extra strength to the plant.
forms pericycle in stems and has dead, lignified cells for extra strength.
xylem and phloem are found in bundles within stems.
carries mainly water and inorganic ions (mineral salts) from roots to the parts above ground. it can only move in one direction: from roots to the rest of the plant
Xylem contains tubes called vessels made from dead cells.
a non-lignified area that appears as a gap in the walls of the xylem. they aren't open pores, as they are crossed by permeable and unthickened cellulose cell walls. they link with neighboring cells to allow water transport from cell to cell.
a very hard and strong substance that is impermeable by water.
elongated cells with lignified walls that help to support the plant. they are dead, with no living contents at all.
involved in transport of water.
carries substances made by photosynthesis from the leaves to the other areas of the plant
the liquid within phloem sieve tubes.
sieve tube elements
living cells that make up sieve tubes in phloem.
found in phloem tissue. have the structure of a normal plant cell, but are more metabolically active and have more mitochondria and ribosomes.
the place where the end walls of the two sieve elements meet.
a plant polysaccharide.
this is made of specialized parenchyma cells and found between lower and upper epidermis of the leaf. specialized for photosynthesis, therefore containing chloroplasts.
parenchyma cells containing chloroplasts for photosynthesis
Large air spaces for circulation of carbon dioxide for photosynthesis , chloroplasts are in cells for photosynthesis.
The loss of water vapor from a plant to its environment, by diffusion down a water potential gradient; most transpiration takes place through the stomata in the leaves.
water moves through the cell walls
water moves from cell to cell via the plasmodesmata.
the movement of water up through xylem vessels occurs by this, this meaning that all water molecules and any dissolved solutes move together as a body of liquid.
attraction in which water molecules are attracted to each other by hydrogen bonding.
attraction in which water molecules are attracted to the cellulose and lignin in the walls of xylem vessels.
can be applied to transport in xylem and phloem, meaning literally movement from one place to another.
substances which the plant itself made.
produces pressure difference in vascular tissues.
any area where sucrose is taken out of the phloem (roots, for example).
any area in a plant where sucrose is loaded into the phloem
a protein which acts as a carrier for both hydrogen ions and sucrose at the same time.
apparatus used to measure the rate at which water is taken up by a plant.
are plants that live in places where water is in short supply. many have evolved adaptations to minimize water loss.