BCS Exam 2 Review
Terms in this set (82)
usually involved in coordinating and suppressing extraneous activity
part of the limbic system
located in the medial temporal lobe
essential to moving info from wm to ltm
behind forehead important for controlling thoughts, reasoning, and behaviors.
positioned above the occipital lobe and behind the frontal lobe and central sulcus. integrates sensory input
involved with hearing located above the ears.
visual processing center of the mammalian brain containing most of the anatomical region of the visual cortex (back of head)
Anterior Frontal Cortex
Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex
Primary Auditory Cortex
Secondary Auditory Cortex
Inferior Frontal Cortex
a part of the brain that controls the ability to produce language. Located in the left frontal lobe on the cerebrum
rear of the left temporal lobe of the brain. It is associated with the ability to recognize and understand spoken language
it is responsible for allowing the two hemispheres to communicate with each other and share information.
common and disabling condition following brain damage in which patients fail to be aware of items to one side of space.
impairs a person's ability to understand and perceive his or her illness
ts: inability to perceive the visual field as a whole, difficulty in fixating the eyes, and inability to move the hand to a specific object by using vision
can only fixate on one object at a time
Delusions that part of her body was not working / had died
Had the sensation that claws were growing out of her feet
Felt this mostly at night
Lesions in parietal lobe close to the somatosensory representation
Surgical procedure in early 20th century to deal with mental illness
- Connections to frontal lobe are surgically severed
-Post-op decrease in self-awareness, responsiveness, initiative, self-control
- Patients left emotionally and intellectually blunted
incapable of forming complete sentences
(Frontal Cortex of the Left Hemisphere)
Complete Sentences that make no sense
(Left Superior Temporal Gyrus)
it is characterized by intact auditory comprehension, fluent (yet paraphasic) speech production, but poor speech repetition.
unable to convey emotion in language but understandable
unable to understand emotional inflection in language
not tied to specific time or place
-date of us const/bf middname/cap. of ny "Common Knowledge"
tied to specific personally experienced events
-fave bday/worst breakup
comes automatically (writing, riding a bike)
requires conscious thought
Often a procedure (procedural memory) • -- Does not require conscious recognition
- Conscious thought may interfere
-Can measure changes in reaction / performance
Distributed Neural Networks
Through learning and feedback, weights between nodes/neurons can change This changes the information represented in the network
a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused the amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
Depth of encoding
the more you interact with and manipulate data, the more you remember it
Activating one concept leads to activation of related concepts
is the tendency to believe information to be correct after repeated exposure.
State dependent learning
Emotion can also provide a learning context
context dependent learning
to improved recall of specific episodes or information when the context present at encoding and retrieval are the same.
improved memory performance when tested in the same context that was in place during learning
a pattern of thought or behavior that organizes categories of information and the relationships among them
Our knowledge of actions is based on (and accesses) the typical routines we have experienced
Top-Down Flow of Information
information flow from higher-level areas (e.g. V4) to lower-level areas (e.g. V1) - Complex mediating simple
Bottom-up Flow of Information
Information flow from lower-level areas (e.g. V1) to higher-level areas (e.g. V4) - Simple to complex
we attend to some things automatically
require an effortful search
commonly used to investigate selective attention within the auditory system
To make sure that attention is strictly focused on one message, the observer repeats aloud that message.
attention is like a filter
Only certain stuff gets through
Early filter doesn't completely filter - it "attenuates" the information that doesn't match the early filter
Our attention is easily grabbed by: - Our own names - Close friends' names - Movies we've seen recently - Topics we are particularly interested in when in a group setting
Whether something reaches awareness depends
We very easily miss things that are not in our immediate focus
Certain tasks show greater activation in one hemisphere over the other
However, in these tasks, both hemispheres are generally highly active
spatial arrangement of where sounds of different frequency are processed in the brain
representation of the body in the motor & somatosensory cortices
"the neurological process that organizes sensation from one's own body and from the environment and makes it possible to use the body effectively within the environment
Refers to the process used by the brain to combine (or "bind") the results of many sensory operations into a single percept.
refers to the consistency of a research study or measuring test.
a measure of how much values in a data set differ from the mean.
One flash in each example - only audio changes
Auditory and visual cues both provide information about how many events occurred
Auditory information captures visual perception
- With audio, the balls seem to bounce off each other, rather than pass by
Visual cue captures auditory cue
Visual and auditory cues provide different information about what syllable is being uttered • Visual: /ga/ • Auditory: /ba/
• Integration of information arrives at an intermediate percept! /da/
Neat Party Trick
• Participant's hand is out of view • Rubber hand in view • Both are touched at the same time • Perception that rubber hand is theirs
Same basic procedure, but brush never touches the rubber hand
• Creates feeling of a "force-field" around hand
Noted that participants showed motor cortex activity 1-2 seconds before they were conscious of choosing to move!
Threshold of Consciousness
the lowest limit of sensibility; the point of consciousness at which a stimulus is barely perceived.
falling asleep, the thalamus reduces activity before the cortex
it's possible to become aware that you are dreamin. This is associated with an increase in frontal activity • Our self-awareness has gone up!
pairs of words or phrases in a particular language that differ in only one phonological element, such as a phoneme, toneme or chroneme, and have distinct meanings.
a visual representation of the spectrum of frequencies of sound or other signal as they vary with time
are resonant frequencies from the shape of the mouth and nasal cavities
Lack of invariance problem
there is no single, invariant property in the acoustic waveform (or spectrogram) that corresponds uniquely to a given speech sound
Speech sounds overlap in time
speech sounds take on some of the properties of their neighbors
- root&suit "u sound"
With experience, we establish functional categories and these categories sound most similar to us
Motor Theory of Speech Perception
Suggests only humans speak Because only humans have the right vocal apparatus (sound to understandable motor movements)
Wernicke's Localization hypothesis
His patients were damaged in a different place than Broca's
Therefore, there must be more than one language area