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Final exam study guide for Beavers A&P II fall 2013

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Which of these is NOT one of the main divisions of the adult brain?
cerebrum
diencephalon
proencephalon
midbrain
pons
proencephalon
Which lies between the cerebrum and the brainstem?
diencephalon
Sensory information is processed and relayed to the cerebrum by the ...?
thalamus
Autonomic centers that control blood pressure, heart rate, and digestion are located in the ...?
medulla oblongata
The third and fourth ventricles are linked by a slender canal designated as the ....
aqueduct of the midbrain
The ventricle associated with the pons and upper medulla is the ....
fourth
The dural fold that projects into the longitudinal fissure between cerebral hemispheres is called the ....
falx cerebri
What contains a spiderweb-like network of cells and fibers through which cerebrospinal fluid flows?
subarachnoid space
The layer of the meninges that closely follows every gyrus and sulcus is the ...
pia mater
Which of the following is NOT a function of cerebrospinal fluid?
-provides cushioning for delicate neural tissues.
-provides buoyant support for the brain.
-acts as a transport medium for nutrients.
-provides ATP for impulse transmission
-acts as a transport medium for waste products
-provides ATP for impulse transmission.
Which of the following help to protect the brain?
-blood-brain barrier
-the bones of the skull
-the cranial meninges
-the CSF
-or all of the above
All of the above
The control of heart rate and blood pressure is based in the ...
medulla oblongata
Overseeing the postural muscles of the body and making rapid adjustments to maintain balance and equilibrium are functions of the ....
cerebellum
Stimulation of the reticular formation results in ....
increased consciousness
The _________ provides the principal link between the nervous and endocrine systems.
hypothalamus
Divisions of the cerebral hemispheres that are named after the overlaying skull bones are ...
lobes
The cerebral area posterior to the central sulcus is the ...
parietal lobe
The region of the cerebral cortex superior to the lateral sulcus is the ...
parietal lobe and the frontal lobe
The region of the cerebral cortex that is medial and deep to the termporal lobe is the ...
insula
The surface of the postcentral gyrus contains the _________ cortex.
primary sensory
The highest levels of information processing occur in the ...
cerebrum
Damage to the somatic motor association area of the frontal lobe would interfere with the ability to ....
play the piano
After suffering a stroke, Mary finds that she cannot move her right arm. This would suggest that the stroke damage is in the area of the _________ lobe.
left frontal
After suffering a BLOW to the back of the head, Phil loses his vision. The blow probably caused damage to the ...
occipital lobe.
Te two cerebral hemispheres are separated by the ...
longitudinal fissure
A (n) ________ is a printed record of the brain's electrical activity over a period of time.
electroencephalogram
You suspect your friend has damage to cranial nerve I when he is unable to ....
smell his food.
Receptors that monitor the position of joints belong to the category called....
proprioceptors
Mechanoreceptors that respond to changes in blood pressure are called....
baroreceptors
A receptor that responds to chemicals dissolved in solution is a ______.
chemoreceptor
If a friend is talking about someone she knows who lost his special senses, you would correct her when you hear her mention _____, because it is not a special sense.
cold
Bladder fullness is to _________ as blood pH is to __________.
baroreceptors; chemoreceptors
The cerebellum
-functions to maintain proper posture and equilibrium.
-receives input from the motor cortex and basal nuclei.
-compares intended movement to actual movement.
-if damaged leads to uncoordinated and jerky movements.
-has all of these characteristics
Your uncle was just diagnosed with a heart attack. One of his major symptoms is left arm pain. You are not surprised because you are familiar with the phenomenon of .....
referred pain
The ___________ division of the autonomic nervous system is known as the "rest and digest" division.
parasympathetic
Ganglionic neurons innervate such things as .....
-smooth muscle
-cardiac muscle
-adipose tissue
-glands
-ALL OF THESE
Sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers that innervate the heart pass through the ....
cardia plexus
A person is confronted by a dangerous dog. His heart begins to race and beat strongly, his pupils dilate, and his hairs stand up. These signs are the result of .....
-sympathetic activation
-increased levels of epinephrine in the blood
-increased activity of autonomic centers in the hypothalamus.
-ALL OF THE ABOVE
Olfactory glands
coat the olfactory epithelium with a pigmented mucus
The sensory neurons within the olfactory organ are stimulated by _________ in the air.
chemicals
Olfactory receptors send axons through the cribiform plate. They synapse on neurons in the ....
olfactory bulb.
Gustatory receptors are located ....
on the surface of the tongue.
Which of the following is NOT one of the six primary taste sensations?
peppery
The external ear ends at the ....
tympanic membrane
The middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the ...
auditory tube
The __________ ear collects sounds waves and transmits them to the _________ ear, which contains auditory ossicles.
outer; middle
The external acoustic meatus ends at :
ALL: the tympanic membrane, the eardrum and the tympanum
Which of these anatomical sequences is correct?
tympanum - malleus - incus - stapes - oval window - round window.
Which of the following descriptions best matches the term ossicles?
transmit movement of the tympanic membrane to the inner ear
The vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the ...
auditory ossicles
Which of the following is a function of tears?
-lubricate the eye,
-wash away debris
-provide oxygen
-nourish the cornea and conjunctiva
ALL OF THE ABOVE
The opening in the iris through which light passes is the:
pupil
The vitreous body:
Helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina.
The gelatinous material found in the posterior cavity is the:
vitreous humor
An area of the retina that contains only cones and is the site of sharpest vision is the:
fovea
Identify some structures::
cornea, fovea and suspensory ligaments, and retina
In the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the:
cornea
Endocrine structures:
release their secretions directly into body fluids.
__________ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues.
Hormones
The hypothalamus acts as both a neural and a(n) __________ organ.
endocrine
The pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is:
TSH - thyroid stimulating hormone
The pituitary hormone that controls the release of steroid hormones from the adrenal cortex.
ACTH -
The pituitary hormone that causes the kidney to reduce water loss is:
ADH
The two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones?
9
After brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. The ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. Which one?
ADH
The adrenal medulla produces the hormones:
epinephrine and norepinephrine
Identify the hormone on the picture of the hypothalamus.....
-Thyroid-stimulating hormone
-corticotropin (ACTH)
-thyroxin (thyroid hormones)
The pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is:
insulin
Inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in:
diabetes mellitus
Which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin?
low blood glucose
Which of the following is a function of the blood?
-transport of nutrients and wastes
-transport of body heat
-transport of gases
-defense against toxins and pathogens
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Which of the following statements about blood is FALSE?
normal pH is 6.8 to 7.0
The percent fraction of formed elements relative to whole blood is the:
hematocrit
Platelets are:
cytoplasmic fragments of large cells.
Plasma proteins essential in body defense are the:
immunoglobulins
Which of these is NOT one of the formed elements of blood?
antibodies
Plasma composes about _________ percent of whole blood, and water composes _________ percent of the plasma volume.
55, 92
Each of the following is a characteristic of whole blood, EXCEPT a:
viscosity about the same as water.
The function of hemoglobin is to:
carry oxygen
All the circulating red blood cells originate in the:
red bone marrow
The average lifespan of a red blood cells is:
4 months
Most of the iron that is removed from degraded hemoglobin is:
recycled to the red bone marrow
The process of red blood cell production is called:
erythropoiesis
A person with Type A blood has:
antigen A on the RBC's and anti-B antibodies in the plasma.
Bill wants to determine his blood type, so he takes a few drops of blood from a puncture wound in his finger and mixes it wiht various antisera. His blood cells agglutinate when mixed with the anti-A sera but not with the anti-B or anti-D sera. This means:
-Bill could receive type A negative blood in a transfusion.
-Bill could donate blood to an individual with type AB blood.
-Bill is Rh negative.
-Bill's plasma contains B antibodies
ALL OF THE ABOVE
Hemolytic disease of the newborn may result if:
an Rh-negative mother carries an Rh-positive fetus.
Which of these descriptions best matches the term lymphocytes?
defend against specific pathogens or toxins
In adults, the only site of red blood cell production, and the primary site of white blood cell formation, is the:
red bone marrow
_________ involves a cascade of reactions leading to the conversion of fibrinogen to fibrin.
coagulation
_________ is a condition in which the oxygen-carrying capacity of the blood is reduced.
Anemia
Compared to arteries, veins....
have thinner walls.
Which of the following are the smallest venous vessels?
venules
Elastic fibers in the walls of which vessels are stretched as the heart beats?
arteries
RBC's move single file through this structure.
capillary
Oxygen, waste, nutrients, and other molecules exchange by diffusion with tissue cells in which of the following locations?
capillary
Which of the following is not a characteristic of venous valves?
channeling blood away from the heart
Pulmonary arteries carry blood to the....
lungs
Which of the following breaks the rule that arteries carry oxygenated blood away from the heart?
pulmonary arteries
The brachial artery branches to form the radial and _________ arteries.
ulnar
The external iliac artery becomes the ____________ artery as it enters the lower limbs.
femoral
Most of the middle layer in the heart wall is composed of....
cardiac muscle cells
In the middle of the thoracic cavity is a region occuppied by the heart, great vessels, thymus, esophagus, and trachea called the....
mediastinum
The earlike extension of the atrium is the ....
auricle
The interventricular sulci and coronary sulcus contain:
>fat
>arteries
>veins
>all of the above
>none of the above
all of the above
Coronary veins empty into the...
right atrium
The atrioventricular valves permit blood flow
in one direction only
The cusps (leaflets) of atrioventricular valves attach directly to ....
chordae tendineae
The foramen ovale in the fetal heart is located in the...
interatrial septum
Identify the pulmonary semilunar valve....
the valve between the right ventricle and the pulmonary arch
Identify the papillary muscles....
the muscles that pull the valves of the tricuspid valve open and shut
Identify the cusp of tricuspid valve...
the valve between the right atrium and the right ventricle.
If a patient's tricuspid valve was leaking during systole, what would happen?
regurgitation into the right atrium
The normal pacemaker of the heart is located in the ...
sinoatrial node
Pacemaker cells in the SA node...
generate action potentials that spread to the myocardium.
Blood pressure is highest here.
artery
As blood travels from arteries to veins,
pressure drops
Blood pressure is lowest in the
veins
Exchange between a blood vessel and the cells that surround it can occur only in...
capillaries
Which of the following would you expect to have the lowest resting heart rate?
a trained athlete
Thy lymphoid system is composed of all the following, except
the venae cavae
The primary function of the lymphoid system is...
defending the body against both environmental hazards and internal threats.
The lymphocytes are most important in....
fighting infection
Compared to blood capillaries, lymph capillaries exhibit all of the following, except that they...
are larger in diameter
Most of the lymph returns to the venous circulation by way of the ...
thoracic duct
The thoracic duct drains lymph from all of the following regions, except the...
right breast
Lymphocytes...
respond to antigens
_________ are large lymphoid nodules that are located in the walls of the pharynx.
tonsils
Lymphoid organs differ from lymphoid tissues in what way?
They are surrounded by a fibrous capsule and lymphoid tissues are not.
The body's nonspecific defenses include all of the following except...
B and T cells.
Various types of macrophages are derived from....
monocytes
Examples of physical barriers against pathogens include:
>sebaceous glands
>mucus
>epithelia
>epidermal layers
>all of the above
all of the above
The cells that perform immunological surveillance are the ________ cells.
NK
Inflammation produces localized::
>swelling
>redness
>heat
>pain
>all of the above
all of the above
Inappropriate or excessive immune responses to antigens are....
allergies
Autoantibodies
are directed against the body's own antigens.