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What are the 5 Parts of a Sentence?
1. Subject
2. Verb
3. Complete Sense
4. Capital Letter
5. End Mark (. ? !)
What are the 8 parts of speech?
1. Noun 6. Preposition
2. Pronoun 7. Conjunction
3. Verb 8. Interjection
4. Adverb
5. Adjective
What are the 4 Sentence Structures?
1. Simple
2. Compound
3. Complex
4. Compound-Complex
What are the 4 Sentence Purposes?
1. Declarative .
2. Interrogative ?
3. Exclamatory !
4. Imperative .
What is a Phrase?
A group of words that does not contain
both a subject and a verb.
What is a Clause?
A group of words that contains both a
subject and a verb.
What is an Independent Clause?
A clause that can stand alone.
What is a Dependent Clause?
A clause that cannot stand alone
(also known as a subordinating clause).
What is a Simple sentence?
A simple sentence consists of one independent
clause that expresses a complete thought.
ex. Jesus wept.
What is a Compound sentence?
A compound sentence is a sentence that consists
of at least two independent clauses joined by a coordinating conjunction (FANBOYS).
ex. Jesus wept yet He sang.
What is a Complex sentence?
A complex sentence consists of an independent clause and at least one dependent clause.
ex. Jesus, who laughed, wept.
www.ASIA.because or relative pronoun
What is a Compound-complex sentence?
A compound-complex sentence contains at least two independent clauses (like a compound sentence) and
at least one dependent clause (like a complex
sentence).
ex. Jesus, who laughed, wept, yet He sang.
What are the Seven Sentence Patterns?
1. S - Vi 6. S - Vt - DO - OCN
2. S - Vt- DO 7. S - Vt - DO - OCA
3. S - Vl - PN
4. S - Vl - PA
5. S - Vt - IO - DO
What is a Verb?
A verb is a word that asserts action, being, or existence.
What is an Adverb?
An adverb is used to modify a verb, adjective, or another adverb.
What is a Noun?
A noun names a person, place, thing, activity, or idea.
What is a Pronoun?
A pronoun replaces a noun in order to avoid repetition.
What is a Preposition?
A preposition relates a noun or pronoun to another word.
What is a Conjunction?
A conjunction connects words, phrases, and clauses
What is an Interjection?
An interjection is a word used to express sudden emotion or feeling.
Ex. Wow! Ouch! Yeah!
What is an Adjective?
An adjective is used to modify a noun or pronoun.
What are the 4 Types Of Verbs?
1. Intransitive
2. Transitive
3. Helping
4. Linking
What are the Principal Parts of a Verb?
1. Infinitive - to + a verb
2. Present
3. Past - - verb + ed, en or irregular
4. Present Participle - verb + ing
5. Past Participle - verb + ed, en, or irreg.
What are the Verb Tenses?
Time - Past - Present - Future ("time frame"
in which action occurred)
Form - Simple - Perfect - Progressive - Perfect Progressive ("nature" of the action described)
Say the Helping Verbs
Do had were must would
Does am be might shall
Did are being should will
Has is been could can
Have was may
What is a Helping Verb?
A Helping Verb helps another verb assert action, being, or existence.
Ex. Bob could hit the ball.
- HV is followed by another verb
What is a Linking Verb?
A Linking Verb makes an assertion by joining two words. Ex. Bob is talented.
- Vl is followed by a noun or adjective
- Can the verb be replaced by = and
- sentence meaning remains the same
What are the
Noun "Usages"?
Subject (SN) Predicate Noun (PN)
Direct Object (DO) Appositive (AP)
Indirect Object (IO)
Object of the Preposition (OP)
Possessive (AJ or PNA)
Object Complement Noun (OCN)
Noun of Direct Address (NDA)
What are the Types Of NOUNS?
Common or Proper dog or Rover
Singular or Plural cat or cats
Concrete or Abstract Church or love
Collective flock, herd, choir
Compound doorstep, son-in-law
What are the Pronoun "Usages"?
Subject (SP)
Direct Object (DO)
Indirect Object (IO)
Object of the Preposition (OP)
Possessive (AJ or PNA)
What are the Pronoun Types?
Personal I, you, me, he, she, it...
Person: 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Case: Subjective, Objective, Possessive
Number: Singular or Plural
Gender: Male, Female, or Neuter
What are the Pronoun Types?
Reflexive: myself, yourself...
Demonstrative: this, that, these, those
Interrogative: who, whom, whose, which, what
Indefinite: some, many any, few, several, all...
Relative: who, whom, whose, whoever,
whomever, that, which, what, whatever
What do Adverbs answer?
How? When? Where? Why?
To what extent?
How often? How much?
Under what condition?
What do Adjectives answer?
What kind? Which one?
How many? Whose?
Which?
What do Adverbial Prepositional Phrases modify?
Adverbial Prepositional Phrases modify verbs,
adverbs and adjectives.
Ex.: The boy ran in the field. Where did he run?
"in the field".
What do Adjectival Prepositional Phrases modify?
Adjectival Prepositional Phrases modify nouns or pronouns.
Ex.: The boy in the field chased the cat. Which
boy? "in the field".
Adverbs more...
Simple;: Pull hard, go quick
Negatives: no, not, never; Affirmatives: yes,
certainly, doubtless;
Flexional are adjectives + 'ly'
Adjectives more...
Descriptive - "what kind?"
Limiting (includes articles: a, an, the)
Possessive "whose?" (nouns and pronouns)
Demonstrative - "which?" (Positive,
Comparative and Superlative)
What aremCoordinating Conjunctions?
FANBOYS
For, and, nor, but, or, yet, so
What are Correlative Conjunctions?
Either/or, neither/nor, both/and, whether/or, not only/but also, not/but (Always come in pairs)
What are Subordinating Conjunctions?
WWW.ASIA.BECAUSE
When, while, where, as, since, if, although,
because
Usually begins adverbial clauses.
What are Subordinating Conjunctions?
After, as if, as long as, as soon as, as though,
because, before, but that, how, in order that,
What are Subordinating Conjunctions?
lest, so that, than, that, though, unless, until, whenever, whereas, wherever, why
What are Relative pronouns?
That, who, whom, whose, which
Connects dependent clauses - usually adjectival clauses.
Who/Which Clause
Other: Conjunctive adverbs
(Connects independent clauses)
Accordingly, nevertheless, similarly, therefore, consequently, hence, moreover, meanwhile
Other: Conjunctive adverbs
(Connects independent clauses)
Although, indeed, furthermore, however, thus,
still, besides
Prepositions
About, above, across, after, against, along, amid, among, around, at, atop, before, behind, below, beneath, beside...
Prepositions...cont.
Between, beyond, but, by, concerning,
down, during, except, for, from, in, inside, into,
like, near...
Prepositions...cont.
of, off, on, onto, out,
outside, over, past, regarding, since...
Prepositions...cont.
Through, throughout, to toward,
Under, underneath, until, up, upon
With, within, without
Limiting Adjectives
"which", "which one", or "how many"
a. Articles: a, an, the
b. Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
c. Numbers: one, twenty, first...
d. Indefinites: some, many, any, few...
e. Interrogatives: what, which, whose
Descriptive Adjectives
(describes or qualifies the meaning of a noun
or pronoun; tells "what kind" )
Ex. Red, blue, large, small, tall, pretty...
Proper adj. - ex. American flag
Nouns - ex. Porch light
Possessive
(show possession or ownership;
tells "whose")
Pronouns - My, mine, your, ours...
Nouns - Bill's, Tom's, Kim's
What is an Adverbial Clause?
Adverbial Clause is a dependent
(or subordination) clause acting as a single
adverb. WWW.ASIA.Because
Ex. While his sister slept, the boy read.
What do Adverbs answer? (1)
How?: quietly, softly,
When?: yesterday, last night
Where?: in the park, by the car
Why?: Because...
What do Adverbs answer? (2)
To what extent?: very quietly, rather softly
How often?: daily, endlessly
How much?:
Under what condition?: While he prayed
What is a Transitive Verb?
Verbs that 'transfer' the action from the subject
to the object, called a direct object of the
sentence.
Ex. Bob hit the ball.
What is a Intransitive Verb?
Verbs that are not followed by objects.
Ex. Bob hit.
What is an Adjectival Clause?
Adjectival Clause is a dependent (or subordination)
clause acting as a single Adjective - Modify a noun or
pronoun
Uses a relative pronoun (who, which, that, whose, whom)
Ex. Jesus, who laughed, wept.
Possessive
(show possession or ownership; tells
"whose")
Pronouns - My, mine, your, ours...
Nouns - Bill's, Tom's, Kim's
What is Active Verb Voice?
Active - When the subject of the sentence is
doing the action.
Ex. "The tornado ravaged the town."
(Linking verbs are not "action verbs" - don't
have a voice - "State-of-Being" Verbs)
What is Passive Verb Voice?
Passive - When the action is performed and the subject is the receiver of the action.
"The town was ravaged by the tornado."
(Uses helping verbs - am, are, is, was, were)
What are the three types of Mood?
Indicative
Imperative
Subjunctive
What is Indicative mood?
It is most common and found in declarative and interrogative sentences.
Ex. "My shirt is green."
What is Imperative mood?
Found in imperative sentences, states a
command or request but may imply a sense of uncertainty
"Forgive us our trespasses."
What is Subjunctive mood?
Used to imply condition, like, "If I were a Martian, I would be green." To express a condition contrary to fact, and to
express a wish.
What is a Declarative sentence?
makes a statement and ends with a period (.)
Ex. I like animals.
What is an Interrogative sentence?
asks a question and ends with a question mark (?)
Ex. Do you like animal?
What is an Imperative sentence?
gives a command and has "you"
or an implied or understood "you"
as the subject of the sentence
Ex. Be kind to animals.
What is an Exclamatory sentence?
shows strong feeling and ends with an exclamation mark (!)
Ex. I love animals!
What is a Proper Noun?
Is a specific person, place or thing and is Capitalized.
Ex. Washington, Bible, Paul, etc.
What is a Common Noun?
Is a non-specific person, place or thing
and is Not Capitalized.
Ex. student, citizen, voter, teacher, etc.
What is a Concrete Noun?
(physical world) - can touch, be seen or tasted: tree, flower and dog -
can experience it: movie, soccer - physical substance: universe, oxygen
What is an Abstract Noun?
(non-physical world) - can't touch -
ideas, concepts, dreams, freedom,
wisdom, beauty, strength
What is a Collective Noun?
Name groups of things and require verb agreement.
Ex. herd, flock, choir, audience, family
What is a Simple Noun?
Book bag, blow dry, black box, black belt, black eye
What is a Compound Noun?
Bookkeeper, bookworm, bluefish, bookcase, blueberry
What is a Noun Number?
One thing - singular - tree, lash, glass
More than one thing - plural - trees, lashes,
glasses, benches, knives
What is Noun Gender?
Male: bull, rooster, stallion, bridegroom, etc.
Female: ships, planes, trains, sister, bride, etc.
Neuter ( neither male or female) window,
hillside, cloud, wind, rain, root, etc.
What is Nominative Noun Case?
Nominative - used as the subject or predicate
noun (nominative)
What is Objective Noun Case?
Objective - used as a direct object,
indirect object, or object of a preposition
What is Possessive Noun Case?
Possessive - used to show possession or
ownership
Ex. Peter's, his, the boy's
What are Two forms of Verb Tenses?
1. Simple: "I fell."
2. Perfect: "To have" plus Past Participle
"I have fallen."
What are Two forms of Verb Tenses?
1. Progressive: "to be" plus a Present
Participle. "I am falling."
2. Perfect-Progressive. "To Have" plus t
he word "been" and a Present Participle.
"I have been falling."
What are Three Verb Tenses?
Present (Today)
Past (Yesterday)
Future (Tomorrow)
What is "Person" of a Verb?
1st I cry. We cry. Tom cries. Tom and I cry.
2nd You cry (singular or plural)
3rd he/she/it or they He cries. They cry.
S-Vi
Subject-Verb (intransitive)
Jesus wept.
S - Vt - DO
Subject -Verb (transitive)-
Direct Object
Jesus loves me.
S - Vl - PN
Subject - Verb (linking) -
Predicate Noun
Jesus is God.
S - Vl - PA
Subject - Verb (linking) -
Predicate Adjective
Jesus is Holy.
S - Vt - IO - DO
Subject - Verb (transitive)-
Indirect Object - Direct Object
Jesus made me a crown.
S - Vt - DO - OCN
Subject - Verb (transitive)- Direct Object
- Object Complement Noun
Jesus made me a saint.
S - Vt - DO - OCA
Subject - Verb (transitive)- Direct Object
- Object Complement Adjective
Jesus made me a holy.
What is the Subject of the sentence?
The Subject is who or what the sentence is about.
What is the Predicate of the sentence?
The Predicate is what is being said (or declared) about the subject.

(what the subject is doing (action) or
being (linking verb))
112 unique Sentence Classifications
Four possible sentence Structures
Four possible Purposes
16 combonations of Structure and Purpose

4 Structures x 4 Purposes x 7 Patterns =
112 Sentence Classifications