Motivation is primarily a function of satisfaction and dissatisfaction;
Satisfaction and dissatisfaction are largely independent and are associated with different factors - No Support!!!
Dissatisfaction depends on "hygiene factors" (physical and security needs, e.g., status, job security, salary and benefits)
Have to have it, if not, dissatisfied
Satisfaction depends on "motivator factors" (social, esteem, actualization needs, e.g., challenging work, recognition, and responsibility)
Bonus" factors, if have, satisfied
Vroom's (1964) Valence-Instrumentality-Expectancy (VIE) Theory
Human behavior is the result of conscious choices made by individuals among alternative courses of action, with the goal to maximize pleasure, minimize pain
These choices are made based on 3 perceptions (multiplicative):
Expectancy - Will increased effort lead to good performance? (e.g., If I work hard, will my effort lead to me doing well in 272?)
Instrumentality - If I perform well, will I be rewarded? (e.g., If I do well in 272, would that help me get into graduate school?)
Valence - how much outcomes are valued? (e.g., How important is getting into graduate school to me?)
Research in general supports this theory, though more methodologically sound studies are needed
Van Eerde & Thierry (1996) meta-analysis tested efficacy of the VIE model in predicting preference, effort, performance, intention, choice
Donovan (2001): within-subject study on the validity of the VIE model in predicting intention and effort
Goal Setting Theory (Locke & Latham, 1990, 2002) is the most popular, widely validated modern theory of motivation
Performance goals --> task performance
Learning/mastery goals --> training success
Specific, difficult (challenging yet reachable) goals result in higher levels of performance than vague, easy, or do-your-best goals
Why? According to Locke & Latham (1990), they:
Clearly define acceptable levels of performance
Increase the amount of effort exerted
Increase task persistence
Lead to more extensive strategy development and planning
Orient individuals toward goal-related knowledge and activities
Factors in addition to setting difficult and specific goals:
Goals must be high but reasonable
The individual must have the ability and knowledge to achieve the goal
Individuals must receive feedback that allows them to gauge performance
Individuals must be committed to the goals - Goal Commitment can be one of the most influential factors in goal attainment
Personality characteristics are strongly associated with goal-setting and goal commitment (e.g., Judge & Ilies, 2002).
Need for achievement
Locus of control (internal vs. external; Ng et al., 2006)
How should goals be set?
Quantity vs. Quality?
Process vs. Outcome?
Assigned, Self-Set, vs. Participative?
Rewards contingent on goal accomplishment?
Process for more complex tasks ; outcome for simple
Assigned if they are sold; but participative is the best
Med. Difficulty ; reward are appropriate
Difficult then awarded for partial attainment (increase as they get closer to difficult goal)
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