A wide-ranging act that authorized $787 billion in spending and tax cuts over a ten-year period and included strong privacy provisions for electronic health records, such as banning the sale of health information, promoting the use of audit trails and encryption, and providing rights of access for patients.
Children's Online Privacy Protection Act (COPPA)
A 1998 law that requires Web sites that cater to children to offer comprehensive privacy policies, notify parents or guardians about their data-collection practices, and receive parental consent before collecting any personal information from children under 13 years of age.
The transformation of goods or services into commodities that offer nothing to differentiate themselves from those offered by competitors. Commoditized goods and services are sold strictly on the basis of price.
Communications Act of 1934
The law that established the Federal Communications Commission and gave it responsibility for regulating all non-federal-government use of radio and television broadcasting and all interstate telecommunicationsincluding wire, satellite, and cableas well as all international communications that originate or terminate in the United States.
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA)
A 1994 law that amended both the Wiretap Act and EGPA; it requires the telecommunications industry to build tools into its products that federal investigators could useafter obtaining a court orderto eavesdrop on conversations and intercept electronic communications.
An electronic text file that a Web site downloads to visitors' hard drives so it can identify them on subsequent visits.
Electronic Communications Privacy Act of 1986 (ECPA)
A law focusing on three main issues: (1) the protection of communications while in transfer from sender to receiver; (2) the protection of communications held in electronic storage; and (3) the prohibition of devices to record dialing, routing, addressing, and signaling information without a search warrant.
electronic discovery (e-discovery)
The collection, preparation, review, and production of electronically stored information for use in criminal and civil legal actions and proceedings.
electronically stored information (ESI)
Any form of digital information including emails, drawings, graphs, Web pages, photographs, word-processing files, sound recordings, and databases stored on any form of magnetic storage device including hard drives, CDs, and flash drives.
European Data Protection Regulation
Proposed regulation to enforce a single set of rules for data protection across the EU.
European Union Data Protection Directive
A directive passed by the European Union in 1998 that requires any company doing business within the borders of 15 western European nations to implement a set of privacy directives on the fair and appropriate use of information; it also bars the export of data to countries that do not have comparable data privacy protection standards.
Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act
An amendment to the Fair Credit Reporting Act that allows consumers to request and obtain a free credit report once each year from each of the three primary consumer credit reporting companies (Equifax, Experian, and TransUnion).
Fair Credit Reporting Act
A law passed in 1970 that regulates the operations of credit-reporting bureaus, including how they collect, store, and use credit information.
Fair Information Practices
A set of eight principles created by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development that provides guidelines for the ethical treatment of consumer data.
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)
A federal law that assigns certain rights to parents regarding their children's educational records. These rights transfer to the student once the student attains the age of 18 or attends a school beyond the high school level.
Information relating to the capabilities, intentions, or activities of foreign governments, agents of foreign governments, or foreign organizations.
Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Act (FISA)
An act passed in 1978 that describes procedures for the electronic surveillance and collection of foreign intelligence information in communications between foreign powers and agents of foreign powers.
Granted NSA expanded authority to collect, without court-approved warrants, international communications as they flow through U.S. telecom network equipment and facilities.
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA)
A law passed in 1966 and amended in 1974 that grants citizens the right to access certain information and records of the federal government upon request.
Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act (GLBA)
A 1999 bank deregulation law, also known as the Financial Services Modernization Act, which granted banks the right to offer investment, commercial banking, and insurance services through a single entity.
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996 (HIPAA)
A law designed to improve the portability and continuity of health insurance coverage; to reduce fraud, waste, and abuse in health insurance and healthcare delivery; and to simplify the administration of health insurance.
The combination of communications privacy (the ability to communicate with others without those communications being monitored by other persons or organizations) and data privacy (the ability to limit access to one's personal data by other individuals and organizations in order to exercise a substantial degree of control over that data and its use).
To agree (either implicitly or by default) to allow an organization to collect and share one's personal data with other institutions.
To refuse to give an organization the right to collect and share one's personal data with unaffiliated parties.
A device that records electronic impulses to identify the numbers dialed for outgoing calls.
Privacy Act of 1974
A law decreeing that no agency of the U.S. government can conceal the existence of any personal data recordkeeping system; under this law, any agency that maintains such a system must publicly describe both the kinds of information in it and the manner in which the information will be used.
Right to Financial Privacy Act of 1978
An act that protects the financial records of financial institution customers from unauthorized scrutiny by the federal government.
Cell phone spy software that can be loaded onto someone's phone to perform location tracking, record calls, view every text message or picture sent or received, and record the URL of any Web site visited.
Title III of the Omnibus Crime Control and Safe Streets Act
A component of a 1968 law (amended in 1986) that regulates the interception of wire and oral communications; also known as the Wiretap Act.
trap and trace
A device that records electronic impulses to identify the originating number for incoming calls.
USA PATRIOT Act
A law passed in 2001 that gave sweeping new powers to domestic law enforcement and to intelligence agencies, including increasing the ability of law enforcement agencies to search telephone, email, medical, financial, and other records, and easing restrictions on foreign intelligence gathering in the United States.
vehicle event data recorder
A device that records vehicle and occupant data for a few seconds before, during, and after any vehicle crash that is severe enough to deploy the vehicle's air bags.
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Series 7 Top-Off Exam Preparation | Knopman Marks Guide