Weather and Climate Chapter 24
Weather and Climate Chapter 24
Terms in this set (83)
How does the atmosphere affect conditions on Earth?
It forms a protective boundary between Earth and space and provides conditions that are suitable for life.
Of what is Earth's atmosphere composed?
Nitrogen, Oxygen, Water Vapor and many other gases in which tiny solid and liquid particles are suspended.
How do pressure and density vary with altitude?
As altitude increases pressure and density decreases.
What are the characteristics of the major layers of the atmosphere?
Troposphere, Stratosphere, Mesosphere and the Thermosphere.
The layers of gases that surround the Earth.
The force exerted by the weight of a column of air on a surface.
An instrument scientist use to measure air pressure.
Lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere.
Condition of the atmosphere of a particular place at a particular time.
The layer of the Earth's atmosphere above the Troposphere. Extends from an altitude of about 12 kilometers to about 50 kilometer.
The region of high ozone concentration.
The lower portion of the Earth's mantle...the layer of the Earth's atmosphere immediately above the Earth's Stratosphere.
The outermost layer of the Earth's atmosphere.
The region of charged particles or ions in Earth's atmosphere that overlaps the lower Thermosphere.
A colorful display of lights in the Ionosphere produced when charged particles from the Sun are attracted to Earth's magnetic pulse.
Spinning of the Earth on its axis.
Movement of one body in space around another.
Between the latitude of 23.5 degrees south and 23.5 degrees north.
From 23.5 degrees north to 66.5 north and from 23.5 degrees south to 66.5 degrees south.
The region from 66.5 north degrees to the North Pole and from 66.5 degrees south to the South Pole which are generally cold.
Occurs on the two days each year when the Sun is directly over head at latitude at 23.5 degrees north or 23.5 degrees south.
Neither hemisphere is tilted toward the Sun and the lengths of daylight and darkness are approximately equal.
What are two ways in which the Earth moves?
Rotation and Revolution
How is the Earth's surface divided into zones based on latitude?
The tropic temperate and polar zones.
What causes the seasons?
By the tilt of the Earth's axis as it moves around the Sun.
What happens with energy Earth receives from the Sun?
Some the solar energy that reaches Earth's atmosphere is reflected back; some is absorbed by the atmosphere; some is absorbed by the Earth's surface.
How is energy transferred whiin the Troposhere?
Radiation, convection and conduction.
What causes winds?
Differences in air pressure/
What are some examples of local winds?
The breezes that occur where land meets a large body of water.
The process in which gases in Earth's atmosphere such as water vapor, carbon dioxide allows visible light to pass through but absorb re-radiated infrared radiation that warms the lower atmosphere.
Horizontal movement of air.
A wind that blows over a short distance.
Cooler air over the water that flows towards the land.
Where cooler air over land moves towards water.
Winds that blows over long distances from a specific direction.
Curving effect that Earth's rotation has on all three moving objects, including global winds.
A wind system that is characterized by seasonal reversal of directions.
A belt of high speed wind in the upper Troposphere
What are examples of global winds?
Trade winds, westerlies and polar easterlies
What are some ways in which water condenses in the atmosphere?
Dew, frost, cloud or fog
How do clouds form?
As warm, moist air rises and water vapor condenses in the atmosphere.
What are the major types of clouds?
Stratus, Cumulus and Cirrus
What are the major forms of precipitation?
Rain, hail, snow, sleet, freezing rain.
Amount of water vapor in the air.
The ratio of amount of water vapor in the air to the maximum amount of water vapor that can exist at that temperature.
The temperature at which air becomes saturated.
A dense visible mass of tiny water droplets or ice crystals that are suspended in the atmosphere.
Cloud that is near or touching the ground.
Flat layers of clouds that cover much or all of the sky.
Puffy white clouds that looks like pile of cotton balls with flat bottoms
Thin, white, wispy clouds, ofter with a feathery or veil like appearance.
A large body of air that has fairly uniform physical properties such as temperature and moisture content at any given altitude.
A sharply defined boundary that forms when two unlike air masses meet.
Occurs when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass.
Occurs when a warm air mass overtakes a cold air mass.
When two unlike air masses have formed a boundary but neither is moving the front.
Forms when warm mass is caught between two cooler air masses
A weather system with a swirling center of high air pressure.
A small weather system that includes thunder and lightening.
A sudden electrical discharge in the atmosphere.
The sound produced by rapidly expanding air along the path of a lightening discharge.
A small but intense windtorm that takes the form of a rotating column of air that touches the ground.
A large tropical cyclone with winds of at least 119km per hour.
How do air masses form?
A large body of air becomes fairly stationary over a region of Earth's surface or as air moves over a large uniform region like an ocean.
What are the four types of fronts?
Cold, warm, stationary and occluded
What types of weather are associated with cyclones?
Clouds, precipitation and stormy weather
How do thunderstorms form?
When columns of air rise within cumulonimbus clouds.
How do tornadoes form?
When a vertical cylinder or rotating air develops in a thunderstorm.
What types of weather are associated with anti-cyclone?
Clear skies, very little precipitations and generally calm conditions.
What technologies help meteorologists predict the weather?
Doppler radar, automated weather stations, weather satellites and high speed computers.
How do meteorologists show information on weather maps?
Sun or cloud symbols to indicate cloud cover. They have drawings of rain or snow to show areas of precipitation.
Scientist who study weather.
A line on a map that connects points of equal air temperature.
A line that connects points of equal air pressure
How is climate different from weather?
Climate is the description of the pattern of weather over many years.
What factors determine the climate of a region?
Temperature and Precipitation
How has Earth's climate changed over time?
Over the long term and vary somewhat over the short term. Natural forces and humans.
How can human activities affect Earth's climate?
Addition of carbon dioxide and certain other gases into the atmosphere.
The long term weather conditions of a place or region.
Extremely dry region receiving less than 25 cm of rain per year.
Were periods when climates were colder than usual and glacier covered a large portion of the Earth's surface.
A periodic warming of water in the Central and Eastern Pacific Ocean. Every 3-8 yrs.
Increase in the temperature of Earth's lower atmosphere caused in part by an increased levels of Carbon Dioxide or Water Vapor.