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Terms in this set (61)
Contains most of cells DNA
Which organelles carry out cellular respiration
Convert chemical energy into the for of ATP
What double membrane encloses the nucleus?
What is composed of DNA and Protein?
Ribosomal subunits are manufactured by what?
Where is the site of protein synthesis?
what manufacture cellular membranes by adding membrane proteins and phospholipids to its own membrane?
The _____ is a selective barrier, regulating the passage of material into and out of the cell.
Where is calcium stored?
what modifies, and packages products?
what are hollow rods that shape and support the cell?
_____ is/are identical in structure to centrioles
Which of these organelles produces H2O2 as a by-product?
what are a component of the cytoskeleton that provide the cell with structural support?
What is the structure of a nerve cell?
What is the structure of a muscle cell?
protein slides back and forth
Structure of skin
Structure of intestines
Endocytosis moves materials _____ a cell via _____.
into ... membranous vesicles
what is phagocytosis?
The engulfing of large particles
what is pinocytosis?
Engulfing of Extracellular fluid
Which of these cell junctions form a barrier to the passage of materials?
The primary role of _____ is to bind animal cells together
_____ aid in the coordination of the activities of adjacent animal cells
Gap (communicating) junctions
What is a ligand?
The binding of signal molecules to _____ results in the phosphorylation of tyrosines.
_______ can diffuse through the plasma membrane and bind to intracellular receptors.
________ bind to intracellular receptors, which can then bind to, and regulate, the expression of genes.
What role does a transcription factor play in a signal transduction pathway?
By binding to DNA it triggers the transcription of a specific gene.
What act as a second messenger?
Calcium ions that act as second messengers are stored in what?
_____ catalyzes the production of _____, which then opens an ion channel that releases _____ into the cell's cytoplasm.
Phospholipase C ... IP3 .... Ca2+
Which part of the adenosine triphosphate molecule is released when it is hydrolyzed to provide energy for biological reactions
γ-phosphate (the terminal phosphate)
What type of reaction breaks the bonds that join the phosphate groups in an ATP molecule?
Which molecule is metabolized in a cell to produce energy for performing work?
Which step of the cellular respiration pathway can take place in the absence of oxygen?
Into which molecule are all the carbon atoms in glucose ultimately incorporated during cellular respiration?
Which stage of glucose metabolism produces the most ATP?
Electron transport and chemiosmosi
How many NADH are produced by glycolysis?
In glycolysis, ATP molecules are produced by _____
In glycolysis, what starts the process of glucose oxidation?
In glycolysis there is a net gain of _____ ATP.
Which of these enters the citric acid cycle?
In the citric acid cycle, ATP molecules are produced by _____.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ acetyl CoA enter the citric acid cycle.
For each glucose that enters glycolysis, _____ NADH + H+ are produced by the citric acid cycle.
In cellular respiration, most ATP molecules are produced by _____.
The final electron acceptor of cellular respiration is _____.
During electron transport, energy from _____ is used to pump hydrogen ions into the _____.
NADH and FADH2 ... intermembrane space
The proximate (immediate) source of energy for oxidative phosphorylation is _____.
kinetic energy that is released as hydrogen ions diffuse down their concentration gradient
In muscle cells, fermentation produces _____.
lactate and NAD+
In fermentation _____ is reduced and _____ is oxidized.
pyruvate ... NADH
Which of the following molecules is the primary product of photosystem I?
What is the biological significance of the light-independent reactions of photosynthesis?
They convert carbon dioxide to sugar.
What reaction ensures that the Calvin cycle can make a continuous supply of glucose?
Regneration of RuBP
Carbon fixation involves the addition of carbon dioxide to _____.
After 3-PGA is phosphorylated, it is reduced by _____.
How many carbon dioxide molecules must be added to RuBP to make a single molecule of glucose?
In the Calvin cycle, how many ATP molecules are required to regenerate RuBP from five G3P molecules?
Which term describes ATP production resulting from the capture of light energy by chlorophyll?
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