Shaking out the bees from the hive, a new colony will build and the laying queen will not be let back in
What is the best solution for a failing queen?
What damage do wax moths cause?
Lay eggs in wax Larvae consume wax, stored products and brood Spin silk everywhere Pupate their own adults
What is Galleriasis?
Bad Wax Moth Infestation
What is the solution to wax moth problems?
Remove empty space and combine with stronger colonies Acetic Acid for chemical treatment of equipment
Where are Small Hive Beetles a problem?
Southern, coastal areas with sandy soil
What do they do the most damage to?
What is the solution to small hive beetles?
Proper space, bee space, fill with propolis
What does the beetle look like?
Has two rows of dorsal spines and legs; leaves comb slimy
What is the treatment for SHB?
How to Manage SHB?
Maintain strong colonies Remove empty colony space Extract honey promptly Melt cappings as you extract Honey house sanitation Trap beetles
Effects the midgut of adult bees
Where is Nosema prevalent?
When bees are confined, package bees and wintered bees
Symptoms of Nosema
Diarrhea/dysentery Moist honey Mite Injury Decreased longevity and nursing Decreased colony population Queen supersedure
When does nosema treatment justified?
1 million spores per one bee
How are spores counted?
How can Nosema be reduced?
Stress reduction Install bees ASAP Do not winter weak colonies Choose wintering locations carefully Preventative or curative treatments of Fumagillin-B
What do SHB and wax moths indicate?
Poor colony health
What rodents are known for damaging hives?
Skunks, bears, cattle and cane toads in Australia
How can rodents be deterred from hives?
Mesh/wire or rigid/electric fencing
What is social Parasitism?
Parasite exploits the social system of the host
Obligate, permanent parasitism between species
How do wasps exhibit social parasitism?
Female enters nest and takes over and starts own nest
What is cleptobiosis?
Nest robbing by robber bees. They take all the resources
What is parabiosis?
Two or more species keep their brood separate but use the same nest in some cases
What is piracy?
Parasitic species steals workers of a different species to maintain their own colonies
Temporary Social parasitism
New host accepted by aggression or conciliation by workers and the host queen is killed
What are pesticides used for?
Kill, prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate
Bacteria and Viruses
Who regulates animal drugs?
Who regulates miticides?
Who is the Father of Toxicology?
What is Paracelsus's known discovery?
"The dose makes the poison"
What is LD50?
Lethal Dose 50%
What are the advantages of LD50?
Reliable, straightforward to compare, Based on topical, contact, or oral LD50
What is the best formulation?
Impregnated material and seed treatment
What is the worst formulation?
Dust and microencapsulated because dusts sticks to bees which poisons the nurse bees thus brood
What is IRAC?
The insecticide classification diagram
Is not that toxic to bees but was still banned in 1970s
Are mostly low toxicity to bees and can be applied during bloom though it may be found in pollen
Kill flowering weeds (a.k.a. bee food) that bees feed on which indirectly contributes to killing bees
Before applying pesticides
Call the dept of agriculture and get a list of apiaries
In regards to pesticide application beekeepers should
post name and phone number int he apiary and communicate with neighbors as well as register and pay fee for apiary ownership Also driftwatch.org is a great tool for tracking.
How do prepare a hive for pesticide exposure?
Move the hive and confine the bees by screening off the entrance, the lid, the whole hive, covering the hive with a wet burlap sack
When can bees be released post-application?
At least 24 hours after
Why are massive bee kills from pesticide exposure rarer?
Better communication and labeling of apiaries
Disappearing Disease is also known as
Colony collapse disorder
What are all the problems that can compound to CCD?
Nutrition, less food (bc corn) Bacterial disease, nosema Pesticides, insecticides Mites, tracheal and varroa Side effects of the drugs to control problems Viruses made worse with drugs, pesticides and mites
How many colonies exist today?
When and why is there a decline in hives?
Started in 1980s People move to cities and sugar is no longer rationed (6 million colonies during WWII)
What is an acceptable amount of winter loss?
What is the actual amount of winter loss?
In collapsed colonies what is puzzling?
There is less insecticide and more pathogens and nosema, so perhaps they were weaker colonies
What is a skep hive?
Classic beekeeping hive Illegal in Ohio
Four Innovations of 1850-1900 (Golden Age)
Moveable Frame Hive Comb Foundation Centrifugal Honey Extractor Bellow Smoker
Moveable Frame Hive
Discovered by Langstroth in 1851 Respects bee space in all dimensions and allows honey to be pulled out without destroying hive/colony
Discovered by Mehring in 1857 Gives bees a guide and forces them to build worker cells in the place that you want
Centrifugal Honey Extractor
Developed by Major Hruschka in 1865 Honey Comb is extracted by spinning and collects honey in bottom of bucket Tangential (small scale) or Radial (Large scale)
Manage colonies quicker, disrupts chemical communications
What are the two kinds?
Cold blast by Moses Quinby Hot blast by TF Bingham (more common)
Developed by Abbe Collin Allows whole boxes of honey to be uncontaminated by brood and queen
Artificial Queen Rearing
Developed by GM Doolittle Transplants workers into queen cell to develop queens and propagate genes
How can beekeepers rob the bees?
Use a bee brush to brush bees off of board Escape boards Bee Go Blowers
Chemical repellent Fast, works in 3-5 mins Doesn't get rid of all of them Very Smelly
Expensive but can be done in one trip and doesn't upset bees
Allow bees to go through to brood but not back up to super
At what temperature does honey crystallize?
Which countries prefer crystallized honey?
Canada New Zealand Germany France
How can you turn crystallized honey back to liquid?
Place at 100F in a hot room or heat gently in a hot water bath
Comb Honey and Crystalization
More rapid and no way to reliquify Should store in freezer until ready
Elton J. Dyce
Patented fermentation and crystallization in honey in 1931
The Composition of honey is:
honey, sucrose, maltose, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, triaccharides and other carbs