Beekeeping

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What is a hive scale?
Industrial scale that you put a hive onto weigh the colony
How much water does a hive hold through winter?
10-15 lbs
Which is more advantageous for a hive to carry, nectar or pollen?
Nectar because it has more colonies. Pollen is less efficient to collect and having more than you need has no advantage
When is all honey collected for winter?
Late May to Early June
What do bees collect during the day? (in general)
Depends on whats competing, usually it is whatever is available and whatever is sweetest.
What does brood pheromone trigger?
Foragers to bring in pollen for the nurse bees to convert to a secretion that is given from the mandibular gland to give to the brood.
What happens to foraging if the weather is cool with intermittent rain?
Lower standards, take lower quality resources near the hive
The Goal of A Flower is ...
Attract, reward and repeat
Attracting pollinators depends on...
Flower color, size, shape and scent
Phenology
The study of recurring biological events related to natural events and weather
What are growing degree days?
A measure of accumulated heat
How are growing degree days calculated?
Average Daily Temp subtracted from a base unit of 50F
What are growing degree days used for?
Predicting nectar flow and pest activity, and schedule pest management appointments
First Bloom
Opens to revel the pistils and/or stamens
Full Bloom
When 95% of the flower is opened
Good Plants for Bees Based on Season
Winter: Skunk Cabbage, Alder, Crocus
Spring/Summer: Apple, Blueberry, White & Sweet Clover
Summer: Black Locust, Bee Bee Tree
Autumn: Asters, Goldenrod
In general, what should be planted to help bees?
Plant trees
Plant a variety of flowers (different size,shape,color)
Plant native plants
What is the minimum flower variety that should be planted?
At least three different flower species
How should flowers be planted?
In Large Clumps with blooms being provided throughout the growing season
How should we care for our yards in order to help bees?
Plant more
Leave dandelions and clover
Avoid Cultivars and Hybrids
Reduce Pesticide Use
Expect and accept pest activity
Encourage native predators
Leave Dead Shrubs
Specialist
Goes for a specific flower
Most pollinators are specialists
Generalists
Gather resources from a wide variety of flowers
Honey bees are generalists and adjust to what is available
Nested Network
Specialists interact more with generalists than with other specialists
How much food reduction would occur in the developing world without bees?
8%
(5% in developed world)
What makes Honey Bees Good All-Purpose Pollinators?
Hairy, collect pollen,
High floral constancy
Can be trucked near or far
High population all year
Pollinate many crops
Polytropic
Pollinate many crops
What are some disadvantages of bees as pollinators?
They are poor pollinators for alfalfa and some seed crops
They have a large foraging range
They can have health and costly issues
Easily distracted and follow only straight lines
Can't mix pollens
How many colonies come from outside California to pollinate 80% of the world's almonds?
1.5 million
Individual defense mechanism
Innate immunity
Social Defense mechanism
Grooming
Hygienic brood removal
Social fever
Propolis (decreases insect presence)
Undertkaing
What is an identifier of brood disease?
Shotgun brood pattern; anything that doesn't look normal with an egg laid alone as the bottom of cells
When does European Foulbrood affect larvae?
Before Capping
What are symptoms of EFB?
Discolored, abnormally positioned, die in coiling stage, color, odor, and texture vary.
They are easy to remove
When does American Foulbrood affect larvae?
Brood dies in capped prepupal or pupal stage; does not infect adults
What are symptoms of AFB?
Spotty brood pattern
Shrunken/concave capping
Greasy appearance of sealed brood
Odor like a chicken coup
Pupal tongue is left behind
Larvae dries and melts down
How can AFB be tested for?
The Ropiness Test; it should look ike dark snot on a toothpick
How is AFB spread?
Colony robbing
Gifting equipment
Feeding honey containing spores
Moving combs from diseased hives to healthy colonies
Moving diseased colonies from one location to another
Managing Foulbrood
Hygienic breeding
Sterilize equipment
Antibiotic treatment, curative or preventative
Antibiotics
Oxytetracylcine or tylosin
Can't harvest honey with tylosin, human health concern
What is the best therapy for AFB?
Heat therapy
What is Sacbrood?
Major brood disease caused by a virus; can be confused with AFB
Deformed Wing Virus
Effects developing brood and adults causes twisted or underdeveloped wings
Associated with Varroa Mites
Black Queen Cell Virus
Similar to sacbrood virus
They die
Associated with Nosema disease and K-Wing
Chalkbrood
Mummy bees- white or mottled found on bottom and in combs
Cultural Tactics for Disease Management
Reduce Stress
Turn up the heat
Allow Propolis buildup
Manage nutrition, genetics and hive size (hygienic behavior)
Varroa destructor
Found in 1987
The Only bee parasite
Feeds on adult bees and brood
When do mites enter cells?
When they are about to pupate, then nurse bees cap bee and mite together and the mite feeds on prepupa and lays eggs
How many mite eggs are laid in a worker cell?
4-5 eggs
How many mite eggs are laid in a drone cell?
5-6 eggs
When does mite population grow?
Very quickly in early summer and peaks in autumn
How can mites be detected?
With sugar roll, look for feces, alcohol wash, brood examination, using screen bottom board with smeared vaseline
When should you treat for mites?
When you have more than 3 mites per 100 bees
How many bees are in 1 cup?
About 300
What is a highly useful way mites can be suppressed chemically?
With oxalic acid, formic acid or apiguad/apilife var
What is a moderately useful way mites can be suppressed?
Drone Brood Removal, HopGuard
What is the most important part about using chemical products?
Rotate the chemical products and follow the label
How hot does it need to be to kill varroa?
104F for 3 hours
How hot does it need to be to kill brood?
113F
What damage does Varroa do to beekeeping?
Energetically costly, reduces worker quality, vectors viruses
What is the best solution for a laying worker?
Shaking out the bees from the hive, a new colony will build and the laying queen will not be let back in
What is the best solution for a failing queen?
Re-queen
What damage do wax moths cause?
Lay eggs in wax
Larvae consume wax, stored products and brood
Spin silk everywhere
Pupate their own adults
What is Galleriasis?
Bad Wax Moth Infestation
What is the solution to wax moth problems?
Remove empty space and combine with stronger colonies
Acetic Acid for chemical treatment of equipment
Where are Small Hive Beetles a problem?
Southern, coastal areas with sandy soil
What do they do the most damage to?
Equipment
What is the solution to small hive beetles?
Proper space, bee space, fill with propolis
What does the beetle look like?
Has two rows of dorsal spines and legs; leaves comb slimy
What is the treatment for SHB?
Checkmite+ strip
How to Manage SHB?
Maintain strong colonies
Remove empty colony space
Extract honey promptly
Melt cappings as you extract
Honey house sanitation
Trap beetles
Nosema Disease
Effects the midgut of adult bees
Where is Nosema prevalent?
When bees are confined, package bees and wintered bees
Symptoms of Nosema
Diarrhea/dysentery
Moist honey
Mite Injury
Decreased longevity and nursing
Decreased colony population
Queen supersedure
When does nosema treatment justified?
1 million spores per one bee
How are spores counted?
Hemocytometry
How can Nosema be reduced?
Stress reduction
Install bees ASAP
Do not winter weak colonies
Choose wintering locations carefully
Preventative or curative treatments of Fumagillin-B
What do SHB and wax moths indicate?
Poor colony health
What rodents are known for damaging hives?
Skunks, bears, cattle and cane toads in Australia
How can rodents be deterred from hives?
Mesh/wire or rigid/electric fencing
What is social Parasitism?
Parasite exploits the social system of the host
Inquilinism
Obligate, permanent parasitism between species
How do wasps exhibit social parasitism?
Female enters nest and takes over and starts own nest
What is cleptobiosis?
Nest robbing by robber bees. They take all the resources
What is parabiosis?
Two or more species keep their brood separate but use the same nest in some cases
What is piracy?
Parasitic species steals workers of a different species to maintain their own colonies
Temporary Social parasitism
New host accepted by aggression or conciliation by workers and the host queen is killed
What are pesticides used for?
Kill, prevent, destroy, repel or mitigate
Insects
Insecticide
Weeds
Herbicide
Rodents
Rodenticides
Fungi
Fungicides
Bacteria and Viruses
Antimicrobials
Mites
Miticide
Who regulates animal drugs?
FDA
Who regulates miticides?
EPA
Who is the Father of Toxicology?
Paracelsus
What is Paracelsus's known discovery?
"The dose makes the poison"
What is LD50?
Lethal Dose 50%
What are the advantages of LD50?
Reliable, straightforward to compare,
Based on topical, contact, or oral LD50
What is the best formulation?
Impregnated material and seed treatment
What is the worst formulation?
Dust and microencapsulated because dusts sticks to bees which poisons the nurse bees thus brood
What is IRAC?
The insecticide classification diagram
DDT
Is not that toxic to bees but was still banned in 1970s
Fungicides
Are mostly low toxicity to bees and can be applied during bloom though it may be found in pollen
Herbicides
Kill flowering weeds (a.k.a. bee food) that bees feed on which indirectly contributes to killing bees
Before applying pesticides
Call the dept of agriculture and get a list of apiaries
In regards to pesticide application beekeepers should
post name and phone number int he apiary and communicate with neighbors as well as register and pay fee for apiary ownership
Also driftwatch.org is a great tool for tracking.
How do prepare a hive for pesticide exposure?
Move the hive and confine the bees by screening off the entrance, the lid, the whole hive, covering the hive with a wet burlap sack
When can bees be released post-application?
At least 24 hours after
Why are massive bee kills from pesticide exposure rarer?
Better communication and labeling of apiaries
Disappearing Disease is also known as
Colony collapse disorder
What are all the problems that can compound to CCD?
Nutrition, less food (bc corn)
Bacterial disease, nosema
Pesticides, insecticides
Mites, tracheal and varroa
Side effects of the drugs to control problems
Viruses made worse with drugs, pesticides and mites
How many colonies exist today?
2.6 million
When and why is there a decline in hives?
Started in 1980s
People move to cities and sugar is no longer rationed (6 million colonies during WWII)
What is an acceptable amount of winter loss?
15%
What is the actual amount of winter loss?
30%
In collapsed colonies what is puzzling?
There is less insecticide and more pathogens and nosema, so perhaps they were weaker colonies
What is a skep hive?
Classic beekeeping hive
Illegal in Ohio
Four Innovations of 1850-1900 (Golden Age)
Moveable Frame Hive
Comb Foundation
Centrifugal Honey Extractor
Bellow Smoker
Moveable Frame Hive
Discovered by Langstroth in 1851
Respects bee space in all dimensions and allows honey to be pulled out without destroying hive/colony
Comb Foundation
Discovered by Mehring in 1857
Gives bees a guide and forces them to build worker cells in the place that you want
Centrifugal Honey Extractor
Developed by Major Hruschka in 1865
Honey Comb is extracted by spinning and collects honey in bottom of bucket
Tangential (small scale) or Radial (Large scale)
Bellow Smoker
Manage colonies quicker, disrupts chemical communications
What are the two kinds?
Cold blast by Moses Quinby
Hot blast by TF Bingham (more common)
Queen Excluder
Developed by Abbe Collin
Allows whole boxes of honey to be uncontaminated by brood and queen
Artificial Queen Rearing
Developed by GM Doolittle
Transplants workers into queen cell to develop queens and propagate genes
How can beekeepers rob the bees?
Use a bee brush to brush bees off of board
Escape boards
Bee Go
Blowers
Bee Go
Chemical repellent
Fast, works in 3-5 mins
Doesn't get rid of all of them
Very Smelly
Blowers
Expensive but can be done in one trip and doesn't upset bees
Escape boards
Allow bees to go through to brood but not back up to super
At what temperature does honey crystallize?
57F
Which countries prefer crystallized honey?
Canada
New Zealand
Germany
France
How can you turn crystallized honey back to liquid?
Place at 100F in a hot room or heat gently in a hot water bath
Comb Honey and Crystalization
More rapid and no way to reliquify
Should store in freezer until ready
Elton J. Dyce
Patented fermentation and crystallization in honey in 1931
The Composition of honey is:
honey, sucrose, maltose, minerals, vitamins, enzymes, triaccharides and other carbs
Consequences of Crystallization
Fermentation
Muted Flavors
Gritty Texture
Lightened Color
Repeated heating damage honey
Fast crystallization occurs at
57F
Flat Plates
Characteristic of fine granulation and feel smooth to the tongue
Star-shaped masses
Give honey a gritty texture
Dyce Method of Processing Honey
Heating, blending, straining, cooling, introducing starter, prepare starter, fill containers for market, constant temp in cold room, conditioning honey
Does creamed honey have flavor?
No, it doesn't have much flavor on its own so flavored or colored ingredients are added such as dried fruit, fruit purees, nuts, spices, natural flavors and/or colors
Who is the number one producer of honey in the world?
China
How much was the anti-dumping tariff?
$1.20 per pound
How does China get around the tariff?
Transhipping to Vietnam and India
How do they produce honey so quickly?
They collect honey before it is ripe, artificially dehydrates; takes nectar from uncapped cells.
Non-honey sugars make honey appear larger and go further
How is liquid honey shelf-life extended?
Ultrafiltration, removes nuclei for crystal formation
Where does organic honey come from?
Brazil