Unit 4 Vocabulary: Genetics
Terms in this set (57)
Process in which the number of chromosomes per cell is cut in half through the separation of homologous chromosomes in a diploid cell.
Strands of DNA (and protein) inside the cell nucleus. (Generally a very coiled inaccessible form of the DNA.)
One set comes from the male parent and one set comes from the female parent.
(Chromosomes that serve an identical purpose; ie, identical genes.)
A cell with two sets of homologous chromosomes (2N).
A cell that contains only one set of homologous chromosomes (N).
Sex cells; sperm in males, eggs in female
A fertilized egg formed from the combination of two gametes
The joining of male and female gametes to produce a new cell.
Factors that are passed from parent to offspring.
Different forms of a gene.
An organism with one copy of this allele will exhibit this form of the trait.
An organism must have two copies of the this allele to exhibit the this form of the trait.
Organisms that have two identical alleles for a gene. (GG/gg)
Organisms that have two different alleles for a gene. (Gg)
(The specific alleles.)
Genes for different traits can segregate independently during the formation of gametes.
Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another.
(Ex: Pink flowers from red and white ones.)
Phenotypes produced by both alleles are clearly expressed.
(Ex: AB blood type.)
A gene with more than two alleles.
Traits controlled by two or more genes.
Messenger RNA (mRNA)
RNA that carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins.
Ribosomal RNA (rRNA)
RNA that makes up ribosomes, the location of protein assembly.
Transfer RNA (tRNA)
RNA that transfers amino acids to the ribosome in the order specified by the mRNA.
The process by which segments of DNA produce complementary RNA molecules.
Binds to DNA during transcription, separates DNA strands, and then uses one strand of DNA to form a complementary strand of RNA.
Removed portions of the mRNA during splicing.
Kept portions of the mRNA during splicing.
Three-letter (base) mRNA sequences that correspond to a specific amino acid.
Process by which the mRNA is turned into a protein.
The codon opposite the one found on the mRNA.
The complete diploid set of chromosomes grouped together in pairs, arranged in order of decreasing size.
Two of the chromosomes (46 for humans) that determine an individual's sex.
Consists of X and Y chromosomes.
The 44 chromosomes that are not sex chromosomes.
In organisms homozygous with respect to their sex chromosome (eg, XX), the sex-linked alleles often for fight for dominance, which creates areas where one allele is shut off and condensed.
A trait in which the homozygous dominant individuals do not exist in the population due to the deleterious nature of gene expression.
Heritable changes in genetic information.
Mutations that produce changes in a single gene.
Mutations that produces changes in whole chromosomes.
Gene mutations that involve changes in one or a few nucleotides.
One base is changed to a different base
Are substitutions that do not change the amino acid.
One base is added to the DNA sequence.
One based is removed from the DNA sequence.
Some part of the chromosome disappears.
Some part of the chromosome is repeated.
Some part of the chromosome is reversed (more like "moved").
Some part of the chromosome is inserted.
An error in meiosis when homologous chromosomes fail to separate.
Describes a trait that is not a "mutation." For example, in fruit flies, red eyes are the wild type while white eyes are a mutation.
Highly specific substances that cut DNA molecule into precise pieces.
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
A technique that amplifies (makes many copies) of a specific segment of DNA.
(Process: Heat to separate, primer binding, polymerase copying, repeat.)
DNA pieces that contain DNA of more than one organism.
(Ex: Bacterial plasmids come from everywhere.)
Small, circular, extra-chromosomal DNA found in some bacteria.
A technique that separates DNA fragments of different sizes.
The process to determine the order of the nucleotide bases (A, T, C, G) in a gene or segment of DNA.
Tool used by biologists to analyze an individual's unique collection of DNA restriction fragments; used to determine whether two samples of genetic material are from the same person.