Unit 3 Vocabulary: Cell Biology
Terms in this set (67)
Key: No membrane-bound organelles.
Key: Membrane-bound organelles.
1. All things made of cells.
2. Cells are the basic unit of life.
3. New cells come from other ones.
A diverse domain of prokaryotes that contain peptidoglycan in their cell walls.
A domain of prokaryotes without peptidoglycan in their cell walls that are often able to survive in extreme environments.
Asexual reproduction with DNA replication and cell division resulting in two genetically identical daughter cells.
Formation of a pili between bacterial cells allows for the exchange of plasmids to move genetic information between cells.
Thick walls that protect DNA and some cytoplasm of bacterial cells to allow cells to survive harsh conditions.
Mitochondria and chloroplasts are the descendants of small, symbiotic bacteria living inside large cells.
Cell part. Think "cell organ."
Organelle that stores DNA; control center of cell.
Composed of RNA and proteins; produces proteins.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER part that helps build lipids; sends tp golgi apparatus.
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
ER part that helps build proteins; sends to golgi apparatus.
Takes in proteins, packages them, ships them out of cell or to other areas.
Contains digestive enzymes that break down materials.
Storage of water and chemicals. (The big ones are in plants.)
Produce ATP from glucose via cellular respiration.
Produce glucose from light via photosynthesis.
Aqueous (liquid) portion of the cell outside the nucleus.
Network of protein filaments in a eukaryotic cell that gives it shape and internal organization. Allows the cell to move.
More or less a semi-permeable boundary between in the cell and not in the cell; protection and support.
Lipid with a polar phosphate attached at the glycerol head and nonpolar fatty acid tails.
Provide support/protection; present in plants/fungi/bacteria; outside of the cell membrane
Does not require energy; molecules move with the concentration/charge gradient. (Diffusion; facilitated diffusion.)
Does not require energy; molecules move straight through the membrane with the concentration/charge gradient.
Method to transport large or polar molecules with a gradient.
Distribution of particles across a space from high to low distribution.
Requires energy to transport; requires energy; often moves against a gradient. (eg, Na/K)
Taking material into the cell
Sending material out of a cell, often by fusing a vacuole (with material) with the cell membrane.
Diffusion of water.
Higher solute concentration
Lower solute concentration
Equal solute concentration
Selectively permeable membrane
Describing a membrane that lets only some things in and keeps other out
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Is energy for you and me!
(Energy unit that "powers" many reactions by turning into ADP.)
Process by which cells turn glucose into ATP.
(Similar to reverse photosynthesis.)
Process by which one molecule of glucose is broken in half, producing two molecules of pyruvate. (O2 not required. Cytoplasm. Net ATP: -2+4=+2.)
Krebs Cycle (Citric Acid)
Process by which pyruvate combines with coenzyme A and becomes Acetyl CoA and then goes though lots of reactions. (Mitochondrial Matrix. 2 NADH and 2 FADH2 produced. )
Electron Transport Chain
Electrons from the carriers are used to move H+ across the inner mitochondrial membrane (from the matrix).
The charge gradient powers ATP synthase. (Facilitated diffusion.)
Respiration with oxygen. Pyruvate goes to the Krebs Cycle.
Respiration without oxygen. Pyruvate goes to fermentation.
Pyruvate is turned into ethanol (alcohol) or lactate. No ATP production; simply regenerates the NAD+.
Series of events in a cell leading to division and duplication of DNA (DNA replication) to produce two daughter cells.
Interphase (G1, S, G2)
Longest phase in the cell cycle. Cells grow, develop, and have normal metabolic functions.
Proteins that regulate the timing of the cell cycle.
Unspecialized (undifferentiated) cells in the body that can regenerate themselves indefinitely.
Different cell types that have different roles. Know their job; no mid-life crisis or anything.
Phase in which DNA is replicated.
Unzips the DNA by breaking hydrogen bonds between the two strands.
Joins nucleotides to synthesize a new complementary strand of DNA and proofreads the strand to ensure accuracy in replication.
Yet still terrible at its job. Everyone has to constantly fix its mess.
DNA fragments left over on the lagging strand because DNA polymerase nopes out when things get too hard.
M Phase (Mitosis)
Division of the cell's nucleus.
Chromosomes are visible when they become sister chromatids.
Centrioles in animal cells move to opposite ends of cell.
Nuclear membrane dissolves.
Chromosomes line up in middle (equator) of the cell.
The sister chromatids are pulled apart and move toward opposite ends of cell.
Nuclear membrane forms around the chromosomes. Nucleolus reforms.
Chromosomes become chromatin again.
The cell with 2 nuclei splits into 2 via cleavage furrow (animal cells) or cell plate (plant cells)
A disorder in which body cells lose the ability to control growth.
A mass of cancer cells.
Gene that halts the cell cycle if DNA is damaged or chromosomes haven't been replicated correctly via apoptosis.
Describing rod-shaped bacteria.
Describing spheroid bacteria.
Describing spiral-shaped bacteria.
Gram+ looks _______ after gram staining.
Gram- looks _______ after gram staining.