57 terms

Biology Unit 1: Ecology

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Ionic Bond
Bond where electrons are more thrown at each other. (Ions.)
Covalent Bond
Bond where electrons are shared.
Adhesion
Attraction between different particles.
Cohesion
Attraction between the same particles.
Hydrogen Bond
Weak bonds between hydrogen atoms and other atoms from different molecules.
(Polarization.)
Hydrophobic
Repelled from water.
Hydrophilic
Attracted to water.
Biosphere
Highest level of organization; contains everything.
Biome
A group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar communities.
Population
Groups of individuals of the same species in the same area.
Community
Assemblages of different species in the same area.
Ecosystem
A collection of all the organisms in a particular place together with the nonliving or abiotic environment.
Primary Producer/Autotroph
Organisms that obtain energy directly from sunlight.
Consumer/Heterotroph
Organisms that must acquire energy from other organisms by eating them.
Trophic Level
Each step in a food chain or web.
Biomass
Total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level.
Biogeochemical Cycle
Elements, chemical compounds, and other forms of matter are passed from one organism to another and from one part of the biosphere to another.
Limiting Nutrient
The nutrient whose supply limits productivity.
Dermal Tissue
The protective outer covering of the plant body.
Cuticle
A waxy coating that protects against water loss.
Vascular Tissue
Tissue that transports materials throughout the plant.
Xylem
Transports water and minerals up from roots.
Phloem
Transports (food) sugar, water, amino acids, and hormones throughout the plant.
Ground Tissue
Plant tissue that is neither dermal nor vascular.
Chloroplasts
Site of photosynthesis.
Stomata
Pores (on the underside of leaves) that allow for gas exchange.
Guard Cells
Regulate the opening and closing of the stoma.
Chlorophyll
The principal photosynthetic pigment in plants.
ATP
The energy molecule of all life.
Light-dependent Reactions
Energy-capture phase of Photosynthesis; Takes place in thylakoids.
Light-independent Reactions
Calvin Cycle; Energy-storage phase; Takes place in Stoma.
Osmosis
Diffusion of water.
Diffusion
The probabilistic process by which molecules go from high concentration to low concentration.
Passive Transport
Transport requiring no energy.
Transpiration
Evaporation of water from leaves (to encourage gas exchange through the stoma).
Capillary Action
Tendency of water to rise in a thin tube.
Tropism
Growth responses by plants to environmental stimuli.
Angiosperms
Plants with flowers. (Enclosed seeds.)
Gymnosperms
Plants without flowers. (At least semi-open seeds; eg, ferns.)
Stamen
Male pollen-producing part of the flower.
Pistil
Female part of the flower.
Niche
The full range of physical and biological conditions in which an organism lives
Competitive Exclusion Principle
No two species can occupy exactly the same niche in exactly the same habitat at exactly the same time.
Symbiosis
Two species live closely together.
Mutualism
Both species benefit.
Commensalism
One organism benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
Parasitism
One species lives on or in another and harms it.
Primary Succession
Succession that occurs in an area in which no trace of a previous community is present.
Secondary Succession
Succession that occurs in an area that was only partially destroyed by disturbance.
Estuary
A special kind of wetland, where the river meets the sea.
Climate
The average, year-after-year temperature and precipitation in a region.
Weather
The day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place.
Exponential Growth
The larger a population gets, the faster it grows.
(To be technical, how fast it grows is proportional to its size.)
Logistic Growth
Where a population's growth slows and then stops, following a period of exponential growth.
Carrying Capacity (K)
Maximum number of individuals that a particular environment can support.
Biological Magnification
Concentrations of a harmful substance increase in organisms at higher trophic levels.
Ozone Layer
Layer of ozone in the upper atmosphere that protects the surface from UV radiation.