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Fundamentals of Nursing History Exam 2
Terms in this set (61)
Which of the following are traditionally gained from the media and culture.
What was not gained from media and culture?
-Nursing is women`s work.
-Nurses are different from doctors.
-Nurses are subordinate to doctors.
- Healing is physical- not spiritual, social and culture.
- Nursing always included both men and women.
-Nurses direct doctors.
What did nursing in ancient Greece bring to us?
-The Greeks were the first ones to differentiate between medicine and nursing.
-Doctors are in medicine- while nursing is a separate field.
What did Islamic medicine include? What did it not include?
- Sophisticated network of urban hospitals.
-Recognition of individual women for their healing skills.
Islamic Medicine did not include:
-Complete separation from their theology in their secular hospitals.
True or False? During the 18 century, midwives entered into a conflict with physicians regarding who ought to oversee birth.
When hospitals were developed in Europe, what significant event was occurring?
Leprosy. They wanted to separate the sick from the wealthy.
True or false? The development of new understanding of anatomy and disease following exploration and war did little to benefit patient care.
The emergence of modern nursing in the 19th century included?
What it did not include?
-Wealthy people hiring privates nurses to care for their children, elderly, and ill family members.
-The religious bases common for organizing nursing.
-Anxiety about working class women earning a living outside of the home.
It did not include:
-A complete lack of formal nursing education.
True of false? Florence Knightingale was the only significant nursing figure during the 1800s.
International Counsel of Nurses:
A.) Was formed in 1899.
B.) Experienced difficulty agreeing on one definition of nursing.
C.) Includes research and participation in shaping healthcare policy as key nursing roles in their definition of nursing
True or false ? The differentiation between nursing and medicine is being eroded by specialization and advanced practice nursing.
Which of the following conditions led to the increase number of nursing training schools in the United States?
A.) Trade nurses provided increased quality of nursing care in hospitals leading to the need for more nurses.
B.) Operations were more safely performed in hospitals following the discovery of the germ theory- leading to the need for more trained nurses.
C.) Hospitals became a place for middle class to receive care along with the transportation revolution.
Hallmarks of the profession include which of the following:
What did it not include?
Degree or certification.
Monopoly on certain jobs.
It does not include:
A generous salary.
Established the first nursing school in England in 1860 or (1864?).
Fought rapid growth of nursing training schools that were not all good and was the first American Nurses Association president.
was the first African American to go to a white nursing school and active in the National Association of Colored Graduate Nurses.
A pioneer in early nursing and the women suffrage movement.
Pioneer in public health nursing found in Henry Street settlement.
Established the frontier nursing services in 1925.
Superintendent of the army nurse core- first female kernel in the US army.
Which of the following were typical for nursing students in hospital based training schools in the 19th century?
12-15 hour work days- no books or exams learning by doing.
True or False? Goals for reforming nursing education in the late 19th and early 20th centuries included standardizing curriculum, shortening work days, prohibiting students from working as private duty nurses.
True or False? In 1896, the organization that would become the American Nurses Association, began with both white and African American Members.
Before nursing training schools existed utilized nurses as relief workers.
Spanish American War
first war that trained nurses -practiced mostly as contract nurses.
World War I
Made nursing critical to arm services and led to the expansion of the army nurse core.
World War II
Led to the Nurse Training Act ( The Bolton Act) the first time federal government stepped in for major support for nursing.
True or False? As a result of the Gold Mark Report and Nurses Patient and Pocket Book Report, nursing education remains strictly in hospitals and hospitals no longer employed trained nurses.
True or False? The Rockefeller Foundation funded the Yale School of Nursing and Hospitals no longer employed trained nurses.
True or False ? The nursing education remained strictly in hospitals and hospitals started employing training nurses.
The Rockefeller Foundation funded the Yale School of Nursing and hospitals started employing trained nurses.
Which social and economic factors shape nursing in the 20th century?
- The stock market collapse.
-President Roosevelt's new deal.
- The growth of health insurance.
True or False? People of all races classes and gender have equal access to education and employment throughout nursing history.
How does nursing image contribute to the cyclic nursing shortages worldwide?
What has been done in the US to attempt to counteract nursing shortages?
-Health care dollars have been invested into recruiting well educated, motivated, and a dedicated work force.
-The nurse reinvestment act of 2002 was passed.
-Scholarships, loan forgiveness, grants, public service announcements to help recruit nurses
What images of nursing have contributed to it being recognized as a profession?
- High level of care.
-Meeting professional standards.
-Formation of the NURSING PROCESS.
- Images by ANA, MOA and Johnson & Johnson.
- Professional Grooming Standards: cleanliness, pressed uniforms, clean shoes, tidy hair, and modesty.
What images of nursing have detracted from it be recognized as a profession?
Nurses being ex-cons, alcoholics, sex objects, subservient, unprofessional and uncaring. Also, TV shows such as Grays Anatomy, House and other shows that show nurses are neglected and not doing their jobs.
What are some of the continuing forces that diminish the public's view of nursing as a profession?
o Consumers having more access to the Internet, allowing more access to more health care and treatment information affecting the perception the public has of nursing.
• Example: media highlighting incidents of preventable medical errors with medication and surgical errors
Name the five interventions (for each organ system) of immobilized patients?
Neurological: stimulate the brain in order to maximize brain function.
Musculoskeletal: Exercise maintains function, prevents muscle atrophy, contractures.
Cardiovascular: Aerobic exercise is preventative.
Respiratory: Aerobic exercise is preventive.
Gastrointestinal (GI): General physical activity improves peristalsis, good nutrition, adequate intake of water.
Genitourinary (GU): Improved circulation (from exercising) increases the blood flow through the kidneys and improved urinary function.
What are general benefits from exercising?
-Improves overall wellbeing.
-Enhances Immune System.
List the preventive measures to protect your back.
1.)Communicate with patient so they are know how and where you are moving them.
2.) Size up the load to be lifted: get help if needed.
3.) Check footing, broad base of support
4.) Get close to what your lifting, do not reach, hold client close to yourself
5.) Alignment: back straight, bend at knees
6.) Strengthen your legs to lift
7.) Lift smoothly - avoid jerky movements.
8.) Shift position of your feet to turn, do not twist your body
9.) Push or pull instead of lifting whenever possible
10.) Spread the word to help save others back
What are some key points to consider when identifying the best way to move a patient?
-Mechanical lifts and lift teams are essential when the patient is unable to assist.
-When a patient can assist, use leveraging, rolling, turning or pivoting - these are less work than lifting.
- Reduce friction as much as possible.
-Face direction of movement.
What should the RN assess before moving patient?
-Physical strength of patient in patient- arms and legs.
-Joint mobility- i.e. contractures.
-Ability to see.
-Dizziness or hypotension.
Describe relationship between cerebral damage and which side will be hemiplegic.
Those who have damage to right sided cerebral damage will have left side hemiplegic.
Are paralyzed from the neck down—require others to move their entire bodies (exception: Their heads/necks).
Paralyzed from the waist down. They may be able to transfer themselves and move about independently, using a variety of equipment (slide/transfer boards, trapezes, wheelchairs etc).
Patients with degenerative joint disease
These patients generally have difficulty rising to standing position. Once they are up many cannot stay standing for more than a 10 or 15 seconds. This is partially dependent on their levels of upper body strength and the presence of grab bars and or walkers.
Name 3 components of mobility
Gate, ROM, Exercise
-Movement of joint during muscle contraction
Weight training with free weights
-Performed with specialized equipment that will provide variable levels of resistance to movement.
-The amount of oxygen taken in does not meet the required amount.
- i.e. Intense exercise (sprinting, heavy lifting)
-The amount of oxygen taken from the body exceeds the amount needed.
-i.e. jogging, cycling.
Know which side should the patient hold the cane?
-The unaffected side.
-This will ensure a stronger (more stable gait—because it is a 3 point gait) gait.
How often should we reposition patients who are immobile to protect their skin from breakdown?
Every 1-2 hours.
Example of Flexion with foot?
Extending foot up. Therefore, decreasing angle.
Example of extension with foot?
movement of extremities( i.e. legs, arms, ) away from body.
Movement of extremities toward body (midline).
-Or bringing together.
Supine hint: pine trees face upward.
-Facing upward when lying.
Facing downward when lying.
-Muscle contraction without motion
Pressing your hand against the wall
How to walk blind person?
Walk to one side and slightly ahead of the patient. Alert them to hazards ahead, such and steps, and uneven pavement.
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