Mrs. Hawthorne- AP Human Geography Exam Study Help


Terms in this set (...)

a mass or collection of things; an assemblage.
EX-the arts center has theaters, galleries, shops, restaurants, and bars.
Break of Bulk point
a place where goods are transferred from one mode of transport to another.
EX- the docks where goods transfer from ship to truck.
Potential Reserve
An estimate of the amount of oil or natural gas reserves that may be available for extraction
Proven Reserve
an estimated quantity of all hydrocarbons statistically defined as crude oil or natural gas.
Bulk Reducing
A production where the import weighs more than the final product.
Bulk Gaining
that makes something that gains volume or weight during production. (finished product weighs more than the raw materials)
Compressed Modernity *
is a civilizational condition in which economic, political, social and/or cultural changes occur in an extremely condensed manner
Distance Decay
the farther away someone is from another the less likely it is to interact with each other
International Division of labor
The term was coined by theorists seeking to explain the spatial shift of manufacturing industries from advanced capitalist countries to developing countries
Location Theory
addresses the questions of what economic activities are located where and why.
Maquiladora District
a factory in Mexico run by a foreign company and exporting its products to the country of that company.

is a manufacturing operation, where factories import certain material and equipment on a duty-free and tariff-free basis for assembly, processing, or manufacturing
Meiji Restoration
was an event that restored practical imperial rule to Japan in 1868 under the Emperor
is an agreement among the United States, Canada and Mexico designed to remove tariff barriers between the three countries.
Northeast District (China)
Manchuria, centered on the region's coal and iron deposits near the city of Shenyang
Export Oriented Industries
(EOI) sometimes called export substitution industrialization (ESI), export led industrialization (ELI) or export-led growth is a trade and economic policy aiming to speed up the industrialization process of a country by exporting goods for which the nation has a comparative advantage.
Site factors
uses land, labor, and capital
is a composite statistic (composite index) of life expectancy, education, and per capita income indicators, which are used to rank countries into four tiers of human development
Trading Blocs
is a type of intergovernmental agreement, often part of a regional intergovernmental organization, where barriers to trade (tariffs and others) are reduced or eliminated among the participating states.
Friction of Distance
is based on the notion that distance usually requires some amount of effort, energy, time, and/or other resources to overcome.
the effectiveness of productive effort, especially in industry, as measured in terms of the rate of output per unit of input.
Fossil Fuels
a natural fuel such as coal or gas, formed in the geological past from the remains of living organisms.
James Watt
was a Scottish inventor, mechanical engineer, and chemist who improved on Thomas Newcomen's 1712 Newcomen steam engine with his Watt steam engine
the basic physical and organizational structures and facilities (e.g., buildings, roads, and power supplies) needed for the operation of a society or enterprise.
is an index for measurement of gender disparity
Sequent Occupance:
successive societies leave their cultural imprints on a place that add up to the cultural landscape. this symbolizes Human Environment Interaction.
Cultural Landscape:
the fashioning of natural landscape by a culture group to fit their needs.
Arithmetic Density:
total number of people divided by total area of land. how many people per area of land.
Physiological Density:
people per unit of area of ARABLE land; how much land is being used by how many people.
region from which innovative ideas originate.
spread of a feature from one place to another over time.
Relocation Diffusion:
spread of an idea through physical movement from one place to another.
Expansion diffusion:
spread of a feature in a snowballing process; happens 1 of 3 ways: hierarchical diffusion, contagious diffusion, stimulus diffusion.
Hierarchical Diffusion:
spread from a person of authority to other persons and places.
Contagious Diffusion:
the rapid widespread diffusion throughout a population.
Absolute Distance:
exact measurements between two places.
Relative Distance:
approximate measurement between two places.
arrangement of things across Earth's surface.
Environmental Determinism:
geography is the study of how the physical environment caused by human activities.
Stimulus Diffusion:
underlying principle of a characteristic spreads although characteristic failed.
Absolute Location
position marked using longitude and latitude.
Relative Location:
position relative to other features.
character of a place; what is found at the location and why it is significant.
location relative to other places.
Space Time Compression:
reduction of time to diffuse something because of improvements in Technology.
Friction of Distance:
distance requires some amount of effort, money, and/or energy so interactions tend to take place more often over shorter distances.
Distance Decay:
the farther away one group is from another, the less likely the two groups are to interact.
interconnected nodes without a center.
relationships across the barrier of space.
degree of ease to reach a certain location from other locations.
How something is laid out; space on Earth's surface.
estimation of extent
representation of real phenomenons at a level of reduction or generalization.
Formal Region: (uniform)
every one shares in common one or more distinctive characteristics like language or climate.
Functional Region: (nodal)
area organized around a node or focal point that dominates at the central focus.
Vernacular Region: (perceptual)
people believe it exists as a part of their cultural identity.
the environment may limit some human actions but people have the ability to adjust new environments.
Natural Landscape:
natural geographical feature created by nature over time.
a common property of distribution; geometric arrangements of objects in space.
Place name:
toponym; name given to a place on earth.
Built Landscape
an area of land represented by its features and patterns of human occupation and use of natural resources [Changing attribute of a place]
disadvantages for maps depicting the entire world of the: shape, distance, relative size, and direction of places on maps
Geographic Information System (GIS):
a computer system that can capture, store, query, analyze, and display geographic data. Uses geocoding to calculate relationships between objects on a map's significance
Global Positioning System (GPS)
system that accurately determines the precise position of something on Earth, which includes several satellites in predetermined orbits and tracking stations to code the precise location of objects and reach a certain point
Thematic map
a map that demonstrates a particular feature or a single variable. Four types: dot, isoline, choropleth, and proportional symbol.
Statistical Map
A special type of map in which the variation in quantity of a factor such as rainfall, population, or crops in a geographic area is indicated; such as a dot map
Cartogram map
a map that has been simplified to present a single idea in a diagrammatic way: the base is not normally true to scale.
Dot map
a thematic map in which a dot represents some frequency of the mapped variable
Choropleth map
which ranked classes of some variable are depicted with shading patterns or colors for predefined zones.
Isoline map
a map with lines that connect points of equal value.
Mental map
A map which represents the perceptions and knowledge a person has of an area
The system used to transfer locations from Earth's surface to a flat map.
Remote sensing
The acquisition of data about Earth's surface from a satellite orbiting the planet or other long-distance methods.
Time zone
an area that uses the same clock time earth is divided into 24 standard time zones, and they have their own time zones

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