55 terms

AP Europe Period 3: 1815-1914

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Bobbies
First professional police force created under Robert Peel. They are from the working class and are paid very well with huge benefits so they are very loyal. They deter crime using night sticks. They are well liked
1832 Reform Bill
This allows some members of the upper middle class to vote by lowering the property right requirement to vote. Also restructures Parliament seats and gets rid of some "rotten boroughs." The king threatened to raise more peers to the House of Lords because they would not pass the bill.
Chartism
A Political reform movement, that favored universal man sufferage and secret ballots
1842 Mine Act
No pregnant women or child can work in the mine
Ten hours Act
restricts the working hours of women and children in British factories to effectively 10 hours per day.
1833 Factory Act
Children under 9 could not work in textile mills.
Irish Potato Famine
Because of the corn laws, the Irish can only afford to farm potatoes which causes Ireland's population to double so that 1/3 of the population is dependent on the potato by 1841. However, a potato blight soon comes that can wipe out an entire crop in 48 hours. This leads to the starvation of around one million people. The Irish government begs the British government to repeal the corn laws so the people can afford to eat. Millions of Irish immigrate to the US however they are faced with oppression and violence
2nd Industrial Revolution
Complex technological processes allow for an explosion of technological improvements. New technologies allow Belgium, France and Germany to catch up to British production. Continental railroad systems are implemented which enhances continental trade and industry. Steel and oil become important
Organized Sports
Appear for the first time as a leisure activity. Government invest in these activities for men as an extension of nationalism and as military training as a way to keep young men fit. In the German areas, Father Jahn had advocated calisthenics for the Fatherland--gymnastics.
Leisure Time
Thanks to the invention of the weekend, the working class is guaranteed a day and a half off. It is now harder to tell class by clothing due to department stores so distinctions are made through jewelry and technology. Drinking is also on the decline
Declining Birth Rate
Medicine and contraceptive methods improve during this time so women can choose to have less children. Due to this, a huge shift appears in the way that children are viewed, it is now normal for money to go to the kids
Edwin Chadwick
Report on the Sanitary Condition of the Laboring Population. This was a public health official in England who wrote reports on the poor living conditions of the cities and believed that poverty was caused by illnesses.
Public Health Act 1848
In England, First piece of western legislation to regulate the health standards of businesses. Gives the government to shut down unhealthy businesses
Labour Party
British political party founded in 1900 with the help of trade unions to represent the interests of the urban working class. Eventually their growth will help displace the Liberal Party
Cult of Domesticity
This is a movement amongst middle class women
1. Virtue: Code for virginity. Cannot express sexual desire
2. Motherhood: You are a servant to your children and husband
3. Religion: The strong religious figure in the family
4. Charity: Women form savior societies
5. Refuge and Privacy: Create the home as a safe place for your husband and children to relax
6. Moderated Sexuality: Results in the total and complete objectification of women
Realism
Reflection on the way people are starting to perceive the world around them. Focused on the realistic portrayal of the everyday laborer
Thomas Malthus
His Essay on Population states that there are too many people and not enough food so population will soon outstrip food supply. He proposes that the poor are the biggest problem so it is acceptable for disease and poverty to run rampant in the poor in order to manage the population. He says that the poor do not understand sex which is why they have more kids than the aristos (false). Aristos hate Malthus but the working class loves his idea because they believe they had to work for their money and they use his ideas as a justification for their poor treatment of the poor.
David Ricardo
A wealthy individual who proposes The Law of the Iron Wage which says that it is good for a business to pay its employees as little as possible (Market wage instead of Natural Wage) because it decreases the population of the poor
John Stuart Mill
Proposes woman's right to vote and paying women an equal wage. Also proposes inheritance tax in order to equal the playing field.
Louis Blanc
Frenchman who is considered the father of socialism. He advocates for governmental control of public commodities (such as mines, water, transportation, and police). If it is for the public it should be run by the government
Karl Marx and Engel
Join together to write the "Communist Manifesto" This says that capitalism cannot sustain itself. Also says that there will be a workers revolution in Europe due to their bad conditions. Also says that religion is worse than capitalism as it is oppressive and enforces bad relationships
Charles Darwin
English scientist whose theory of evolution through natural selection was first published in 'On The Origin of the Species" in 1859.
Social Darwinism
This uses the principles of natural selection to explain and justify racial structures in society (slavery and colonialism). Created categories for race for the first time
Madame Curie
known for discovering radium
Impressionism
Major Western artistic style that gained prominence in the second half of the 1800s and into the 1900s.Against Realism, visual impression of a moment, style that seeks to capture a feeling or experience, often very colorful. Used light and color, very fast and messy
Cubism
A style of art in which the subject matter is portrayed by geometric forms, especially cubes
Congress of Vienna
Following Napoleon's exile, this meeting of European rulers in Austria established a system by which the balance of power would be maintained, liberal revolutions would be repressed, as would imperial expansion, and the creation of new countries in Europe.
Nationalism
A strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country. The goal of the Congress of Vienna is to surpress this because it destroys nations due to the huge number of subsets of people in European countries
Liberalism
Loves the free market with little tax revenue. In favor of a constitutional government in order to protect their wealth. They believe in laissez faire economics and Malthusian theory
Conservatism
those who went to the Congress of Vienna were politically inclined this way. The believed in a traditional monarchy with a national church and an economy controlled by the nobility. They hate nationalism and liberalism.
Concert of Europe
This term is used to refer to the Congress of Vienna because it created peace for 100 years and had no punishment on the French which helped decrease tension
Romanticism
Focus on the unseen supernatural and human emotion. Embracing folklore and a separation from sciences. It is the cultural foundation for Nationalism
Florence Nightingale
Advocates the Red Cross to help soldiers on both sides of the war. She starts sterilization which decreases death from infection.
Cavour
Prime Minister of Sardinia-Piedmont who wants to unify Italy.
Unification of Italy
Austria owns massive parts of the Austrian peninsula. So, Cavour makes a secret alliance with Napoleon III by promising him parts of Italy so he protects them against an aggravated attack from Austria. The Northern city states agree to unify with Sardinia. In the South Giribaldi helps by unifying Southern States. However, Rome is left un-unified due to conflicts with the Catholic Church. This unification creates class issues with Northern Italy being industrialized and wealthy and Southern Italy being rural and poor
Garibaldi
He is supported by Cavour to liberate southern Italy, starting with Sicily
Otto von Bismarck
Was appointed to Prussian Chancellor by William I. He is personally conservative and hates liberalism and socialism but will do whatever he needs in order to win. He wants to unify the german confederation with Prussia through weakening Austria and stressing German nationalism
Zollverein
The name of the free trade zone that German states created prior to their unification.
The Austro-Prussian War
Bismarck makes alliances with Russia and France so Austria declares war on Prussia which makes Prussia look like a victim even though they are destroyed in seven weeks. The Northern German confederation votes and join with Prussia to create the North German Confederation
The Franco-Prussian War
Bismarck needs to unify the Southern german states that are controlled by France and very Catholic. He does this by proposing to put one of his cousins on the empty throne in Spain. He knows that this would start a war with France. Then Bismarck edits a telegram from William I so that it insults the French which starts the war. Before Bismarck reaches Paris, they hold a revolution and create a Third Republic however, they are eventually starved into submission of the Prussians. Bismarck leaves France extremely weakened so German can easily take over the Southern German states. This ends Napoleon III and forces him to flee to England
Kulturkampf
Bismarck's anticlerical campaign to expel Jesuits from Germany and break off relations with Vatican. Eventually, after little success, Bismarck halted these policies.
Social Democratic Party
This party forms from the lower classes as an attack on the autocracy, military and nationalism. However, to maintain the survival of his party, Bismarck listens to these requests and instates social legislation (health insurance, accident insurance, old age pensions and disability pensions)
Dual Monarchy, Ausgleich
After Austria's defeat by Prussia in 1866, Hungarians demanded more freedom. Austria responded in 1867 by forming this monarchy, also called the Austria-Hungary, in which Hungarians shared power with Austrians. Under this system, Austria's emperor is also the king of Hungary. They only work together in times of war and commerce
Napoleon III
He is elected President and then declares himself the emperor of France. In the first half of his reign, he is extremely authoritarian with secret police and censorship. However, in the second half, he becomes much more socialist with redesigning Paris, instating hospitals, distributing free medicine and giving workers the right to strike and organize. His foreign policies, however, lead to his downfall
Dreyfus Affair
A Jewish army officer is convicted of treason by a military court and goes to jail for 20 years. Evidence is found that shows that Major Esterhazy is the guilty party. However, the French army refuses to open the case again. This divides the nation and creates a crisis. The Army, anti-Semites, monarchists and Catholics feel he is guilty. Liberals, Republicans and anti-Catholics believe he is innocent and is only blamed because of Antisemitism. Eventually the case is reopened and is found guilty again by the French Army but the French President pardons him anyway and cuts all ties the French government has with the Catholic Church by separating church and state.
Reform Bill of 1867
This gives working class the right to vote. Disraeli believes that this will make them vote conservative because they gave them their suffrage. This does end up destroying the Liberal and Malthusian party in England.
1884 Reform Bill
This extends the right to vote to farmers so there is finally universal male suffrage in Britain
Parliament Act of 1911
Legislation that deprived the House of Lords to veto power in all money matters
Zemstov
A form of local government that was instituted during the great liberal reforms performed in Imperial Russia by Alexander II of Russia.
Alexander III
Takes away the constitution of Russia and freedom before the law. Instates Pogroms and the Trans-Siberian Railroad
The Congress of Berlin
Bismarck gives Slavic nations sovereignty which means Russia can no longer justify its interference. Bismarck gives Serbia a small land-locked country even though they believe they should get the entire Balkan Peninsula.
Dual Alliance
Bismarck's (Germany's) secret treaty with Austria which provided for support if attacked by Russia.
The Conference of Berlin
Bismarck divides up Africa using superficial lines with no basis in actual nationality. Sets up modern global structure
Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose; Russians realize need to industrialize. Destroyed the Concert of Europe.
Imperialism
A policy in which a strong nation seeks to dominate other countries politically, economically, or socially. This led to the creation of a number of European empires which extended around the world.

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