87 terms

Pharmacology Lab Test 2

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Medication order
Given for a specific patient. Written by a physician or authorized prescriber. Must be legible and complete
Medication order contents
Full name of the patient, name of the medication (generic preferred), dose and route, frequency of administration, date and time written, specific directions for administration, signature of the physician
Legibility/Completeness of med order
Must be legible/clear/neat or it will not be carried out. If it can not be carried out the prescriber/covering provider will be contacted and the order will need to be rewritten or clarified in writing
Acceptable on a med order
Write out microgram or abbreviate mcg. Write out units. Write out days or doses. Use a leading 0 before a decimal (0.6).
Unacceptable on a med order
Using ug for microgram. Using u or U for units. Using d or D for days. Trailing 0 after a decimal (6.0)
Parts of a prescription
Physician's information, patient's information, superscription, inscription, subscription, signature, physician signature, repetatur (refills), label
Prescription physician information
Name, address, phone number, fax number, DEA registration number
Prescription patients information
Name, DOB, address, date prescription is written
Prescription superscription
Symbol RX ("take thou")
Prescription inscription
States the names and quantities of ingredients to be included in the medication
Prescription subscription
Gives directions to the pharmacist for filling the prescription
Prescription signature
(Sig) gives the directions for the patient
Prescription physicians signature
Where signed, indicates if a generic substitute is allowed or if the medication is the be dispensed as written
Prescription repetatur (refills)
This is where the physician indicates whether or not the prescription can be refilled
Prescription label
Any special instructions
Prescription medication
Dangerous, powerful, or habit forming. Used under physician supervision
over-the-counter medication (otc)
Approved for use without medical supervision
e-prescribing
Uses online, computerized software to create and sign prescriptions. Used by all health care providers
Prescription refill
Full name, DOB, medication, pharmacy preference, dose, route, frequency, date/time written➡️check chart for date of: last refill, last visit, next appointment time➡️give the patient a call back time➡️give request to the dr➡️make sure order is complete and accurate➡️notify patient
Verbal order ( VO )
Expressed by speech, not written
Telephone order (TO)
Verbal order transmitted by telecommunications
PRN order
"As necessary" within specific time
Routine order
Prescribed, detail course. Followed regularly
Single order
One time only
Stat order
Immediate administration
Phoning in prescriptions
Medical assistant must include all the information listed in the written prescription. To ensure accuracy always ask the pharmacist to repeat back the information given
Guidelines for understanding the med order
Be knowledgeable about drugs your dr prescribes. Write each verbal order exactly as heard. Repeat order back to the dr. Understand order completely before administration. Ask any questions before administration. If in doubt seek assistance. Be familiar with new drugs on the market.
medication label
Brand/generic name, NDC number, dose/strength/frequency, administration route, warnings, expiration date, lot/batch code, special instructions
Abbreviations
Shorthand of the medical field. International language. Clear and concise means for writing orders
ISMP
Institute for Safe Medication Practices: where abbreviations, symbols and dosages that can be misinterpreted are reported and added to a do not use list
Allergen
Any substance that causes allergy
Allergy
An individual hypersensitivity to a substance, usually an antibody-allergen reaction
Allergic rhinitis
Inflammation of the nasal mucous membrane due to allergies
Anaphylaxis
An allergic hypersensitivity reaction of the body to a foreign substance, usually to a protein substance or a drug. Anaphylactic shock usually occurs suddenly and can be life threatening
Atopy
An allergy for which there is a genetic predisposition
desensitize
To lessen the sensitivity of an individual by administration of the specific antigen or antigens (in minute dosage)
Immunoglobulin gamma E (IgE)
A protein produced by the lining of the of the respiratory and intestinal tracts. It is important in forming regain.
immunotherapy
The treatment of a disease process by stimulating the body's immune system. Allergy shots. Used when patient can't avoid allergen.
Reagin
A type of IgE produced in genetically predisposed individuals which results in atopy.
Symptoms of allergies
Dark circles under eyes, sneezing, wheezing, cough,redness of the eyes/nose,tearing,nausea,vomiting,diarrhea,skin rash,noisy breathing,malaise,fatigue,pain in forehead/cheeks/teeth.
Early spring allergies
Trees: elm,birch,ash,hickory......
Late spring/summer allergies
Grasses: Timothy,Bermuda,orchard.......
Fall allergies
Weeds:ragweed,goldenrod,pigweed, cockleweed
Preparing for skin testing
Discontinue any antihistamines one week prior to testing, discontinue steroids 30 days prior to testing
Scratch/prick test
Placement of a suspected allergen in the uppermost layers of the epidermis. Done on forearm(adult) or back(child). Allergens must be spaced appropriately for accurate results
Patch test
Placement of a suspected allergen onto the skin. Usually done by saturating a gauze square with the suspected allergen and placing it onto the patients skin. Reactions are read at 24 and 48 hours
Intradermal allergy testing
Injection of a minute amount of a suspected allergen into the epidermal later producing a wheal
After injection of a sub q allergic extract
Always observe the patient for 15-30 minutes after
Epi pen
Should be readily available when working with allergens. Also have an antihistamine:Zyrtec, Benadryl,Claritin
Allergy treatment
Avoid the cause, medications, immunotherapy
Allergy shots
Administered sub q so they are slowly absorbed
Medications for allergies
Decongestants, steroids, leukotriene blockers, bronchodilators, antihistamines
Antihistamines
Structurally related to histamine and act to counter it affects. Zyrtec,Benadryl,Allegra,Claritin
Patients taking allegra
Should avoid citrus juice
Decongestants
Commonly used for symptomatic relief of nasal congestion. Afrin, sudafed
Corticosteroids
Anti-inflammatory agents that are chemically related to the naturally occurring hormone cortisone
Leukotriene blockers
Medications that help fight allergic inflammation by blocking leukotrienes. Montalukast(singular)
bronchodilators
Used to dilate the bronchi and improve pulmonary airflow. Epinephrine.
CSA 1970
Controlled substances act: controls the manufacture,importation,compounding,selling,dealing in,and giving away of drugs that have the potential for addiction and abuse
Schedule I drugs
No legal medical use, highly addictive. Examples: heroin,LSD, ecstasy,GHB,marijuana
Schedule II drugs
Medical use but still highly addictive. Requires a written prescription and no refills. Phone order only emergency-must be followed by a written prescription in 72 hours. Examples: morphine,amphetamines,cocaine
Schedule III drugs
Moderate abuse potential. Prescription may be written,oral, or transmitted by fax. 5 refills in 6 months. Examples: Tylenol #3, ketamine,testosterone
Schedule IV drugs
Low abuse potential. Prescription maybe written,oral,or transmitted by fax. Limited to 5 refills in 6 months. examples: Xanax,Valium,Ativan,ambien
Schedule V drugs
Very low potential for abuse. Prescription may be written,oral,or transmitted by fax.
pharmaceutical regulation
FDA, DEA
Prescribe
A written order filled by a pharmacist
Administer
A medication dose taken by a patient during a visit
Dispense
A medication given to a patient for a fee which is then taken home
DEA form 224
Providers who dispense,prescribe, or administer controlled substances must register with the DEA using this form
DEA registration number
Registered providers receive this and a certificate that are valid for three years. Must be displayed
DEA renewal
Forms are usually sent out 60 days prior to the expiration date, it is the providers responsibility to make sure the controlled substance registration is active and up to date.
Controlled substances that are dispensed/administered
Separate record for each transaction should be kept. All medication transaction should be charted
Initial inventory
All controlled substances must be inventoried on the first day an entity begins to distribute, dispense, or administer these drugs
General inventory
How often a general inventory is done is usually determined by the facility. Most offices engage in ongoing inventory's at the beginning of the business day or end of the business day
Scheduled drug inventory
Must be kept separate from other drug inventory's and be easily retrievable. Complete inventory must happen every 2 years. Records must be available for inspection and account for all drugs dispensed
Administering/dispensing schedule II drugs in office
Recorded info must include patients name/address/date of administration/medication/dose/route/method of dispensing/indication for use
Prescription inventory
The provider records all prescriptions in the patients record
All inventory records require
Providers name/address/DEA registration number/date of inventory/signature of person taking inventory
Schedule II orders
Must be made using DEA form #222
Controlled substance security
Kept separate from other meds. Double locked cabinet with restricted access
Theft/loss of controlled substances
Report immediately using form DEA-106
Damage/Contamination of controlled substances
Notify DEA and fill out form DEA-41
Disposal of controlled substances
Regulated by the DEA. State requirements must also be followed
Non prescription drugs/supplements
Important to include on patients medication list. These drugs may counteract or be otherwise incompatible with prescribed medications
Medication samples
Commonly provided by pharmaceutical companies, quantity and dosage strength of samples given to patients must be charted as any other med. samples must be stored away from stock meds. Discard outdated meds
Cold medication storage/disposal
Dedicated refrigerators/freezers must be present if required. Temperatures should be monitored. Facilities policy for disposal should be followed
Drug references
PDR book, Electronic sources: USP-NF/PDR.net/RXList.com, package insert, handbooks
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