60 terms

World Geo Unit 1

World Geo unit 1 vocab words.
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June Solstice
Longest day of year in northern hemisphere, shortest in southern. Around june 22nd, sun's rays point directly at the tropic of cancer.
December solstice
shortest day of year in northern, longest day in southern. around december 22nd, sun points directly at tropic of capricorn
March Equinox
around march 22nd, sun's rays point directly at the equator.
September equinox
around september 22nd, sun points directly at the equator.
tropic of cancer
marks points farthest north that the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon on the june solstice.
tropic of capricorn
marks points farthest south that the sun's rays shine directly overhead at noon on the december solstice.
Arctic Circle
points north of it receive 24 hours of daylight on the june solstice and 24 hours of darkness on the december solstice
Antarctic circle
points south of it receive 24 hours of daylight on the december solstice and 24 hours of darkness on the june solstice.
Equator
0 degrees of latitude, sun points directly at it during the equinoxes
Weather
the atmospheric conditions at a particular location and time
Climate
the long term weather conditions of a particular location
Coriolis Effect
Says that all moving objects in the northern hemisphere are moved to the right and in the southern hemisphere, to the left.
elevation
the higher it goes, generally, the cooler the temperature.Temp. drops about 3.5 degrees F every 1,000 ft.
Low latitudes
(Also called tropical) found on either side of the equator, extend to the tropic of cancer and the tropic of capricorn. Lands are hot all year. 23.5-0 degrees.
Middle Latitudes
( Also called temperate) between tropics and polar regions, ranges from relatively hot, to relatively cold. 60-23.5 degrees.
High latitudes
( Also called polar) Encircle the North pole and south pole. Summer temps. may only reach a high of 50 degrees F. 60-90 degrees.
Westerlies
Blows from west to east, between 30 and 60 degrees in both N and S.
Easterlies
Blows from east to west, between 60 and 90 degrees in both N and S
Northeasterly trade winds
blow from north to southwest, between 0-30 degrees IN JUST NORTH.
Southwesterly trade winds
blow from south to northeast, between 0- 30 degrees IN JUST SOUTH.
High pressure zones
cool dense air
Low pressure zones
created when sun heats air up and it expands,
orographic effect
associated with mountain areas, orographic storms drop more rain on the windward side of a mountain and create a rain shadow on the leeward side.
windward
the side of the mountain that gets the rain
leeward
the rain shadow. gets little rain from dry descending air.
Rain Shadow
the land on the leeward side of a mountain
Frontal
Mid-latitude frontal storms feature cold dense air masses that push lighter warm air upward, causing precipitation to form.
Tropical wet
80 inches of precip. a year, rain fall almost daily, always hot more that 80 degrees, near equator.
Tropical wet and dry
rainy season in summer, dry season in winter; cooler in wet season, warmer in dry; found next to tropical wet, near tropics of cancer and capricorn.
semiarid
about 16 inches of rain a year, can produce snow, not much precipitation; hot summers, mild to cold winters; found in interior of continents around deserts
desert
≤10 inches of rain a year; can be hot or cold, temps. drop at night, warmer summer, cooler winter; middle latitudes 30 degrees north or south, mostly northern hemisphere.
Mediterranean
dry summer, rainy winter; dry hot summers, mild and rainy winters, around mediterranean sea, U.S. west coast, parts of australia.
marine west coast
precip. is distributed throughout the year. Frequently cloudy, foggy damp, rains year round; Temp. is fairly constant because of oceans, west coast in upper middle lats.
humid subtropical
subject to hurricanes in late summer and early fall, Long hot humid summers, mild to cool winters, East coast of continents,Southeast U.S, large areas of China and Florida
Humid continental
Rainy spring, great precip. variety; experiences 4 seasons, Mid latitude interiors of North hemisphere continents EX: Winnipeg, Manitoba in Canada
Subarctic
steady precip, rain and snow; temps. at or below freezing 5-8 months a year, short summers; Canada, Russia, Scandanavia
Tundra
Precip. varies with latitude, elecation, etc; cool to cold; Permafrost, high mountains
ice Cap
less that 10 inches of rain a year; permanently frozen, cold, rarely above freezing; Polar Ice Caps
Highlands
climate varies with latitude, elevation, and other topography; EX: Andes mountains in South America
Climograph
Show months, precipitation, and temperature
El Nino
A weather pattern created by the warming of the waters off the west coast of South America which pushes warm water and heavy rains towards the americas and creates drought in australia and Asia.
La Nina
opposite of el nino; when winds blow the warmer water to the lands on the western pacific rim; increased precipitation in places such as India and increased dryness along Pacific coast of America
Floods
When water spreads over land that is not normally covered in water.
Flood Plain
flat land near the edges of rivers formed by mud and silt deposited by floods
Hurricanes
Storms that form over warm, tropical ocean waters, also called typhoons.
Tornado Alley
The flat plains stretching from Texas through Nebraska. Here because of cold dry Canadian air rushing South and colliding with warm moist air from the Gulf of Mexico.
Earthquake
A release of energy created by plates slipping past each other.
Seismograph
A device that measures the size of waves created by an earthquake.
tsunami
a giant ocean wave created by an underwater earthquake or volcanic eruption.
Volcano
An opening in the Earth, usually raised, through which gases and lava escape from the Earth's interior
Greenhouse Effect
The layer of gases released by the burning of coal and petroleum traps some solar energy, causing higher temperatures in the same way a greenhouse traps solar energy.
Ecosystem
an independent community of plants and animals
Biome
A regional ecosystem
Deciduous
named characteristics of broadleaf trees, such as maple, oak, birch, and cottonwood.
Coniferous
(needleleaf trees) characteristics of trees like pine, fir, and cedar found in northern regions of NA
Grassland
mostly flat region dotted with a few trees
Savanna
tropical grassland
Steppe
northern hemisphere name
Tundra
flat, treeless lands forming a ring around the Arctic Ocean; the climate region of the arctic ocean
Permafrost
permanently frozen ground
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