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Aerospace Module 4
Terms in this set (137)
When does the history of rockets begin?
Who did the history of rockets begin with?
A Greek guy named Archytas building a flying wooden pigeon
Archytas's flying wooden pigeon was suspended on a write an propelled how?
About 300 years after Archytas, a Greek named ______ developed the first rocket engine propelled by steam.
Explain how Hero's rocket worked?
He placed sphere on top of a pot of water. The water was heated and turned into steam. The steam traveled through pipes into the sphere allowed the gas to escape. This created a thrust that caused the sphere to rotate. This device is known as the Hero Engine.
In the first century AD, how did the Chinese develop the rocket?
The Chinese developed a form of gunpowder and used it as fireworks for religious and festive celebrations. The Chinese began experimenting with the gunpowder-filled tubes. They attached bamboo tubes to arrows and launched them with bows, creating early rockets.
In 1232, when the Chinese and Mongols were at war, how were rockets used?
Early rockets were used as arrows of flying fire. This was a simple form of a solid-propellant rocket. A tube, capped at one end, contained gunpowder. The other end was left open and the tube was attached to a long stick. When the powder ignited, the rapid burning of the powder produced fire, smoke, and gas that escaped out the open end and produced a thrust. The stick acted as a guidance system that kept the rocket headed in the general direction as it flew through the air. Records indicate that from this point, the use of rockets spread, as well as the use of fins to add stability.
Who explored rockets in England?
Roger Bacon improved forms of gunpowder, which increased the range of the rocket.
Who explored rockets in France?
Jean Froissart achieved more accuracy by launching rockets through tubes. This idea was the forerunner of the bazooka.
During the latter part of the 17th century, how did Sir Isaac Newton lay the scientific foundations for modern rocketry?
He developed his laws of motion which influenced the design of rockets.
Where were the first most powerful rockets designed?
Germany and Russia
Who set out to design rockets for military use at the end of the 18th century?
Colonel William Congreve with the British army
Congreve increased the rocket's range from 200 yards to how many yards?
Congreve's rockets were successful in battle for what reason?
The sheer number of rockets that could be fired.
Congreve rockets lit the sky during the battle at _______ ___________ in the year _________.
Fort McHenry; 1812
The Star Spangled Banner became our national anthem after who wrote the famous poem that influenced it and in what year?
Francis Scott Key in the year 1812
What was the main issue early rocket explorers were trying to improve?
Who developed spin stabilization, a technique used in variation in rockets today, and what does it mean?
William Hale developed spin stabilization. The escaping exhaust gases struck small vanes at the bottom of the rocket causing it to spin much as a bullet does in flight.
Who suggested rockets to be used in space exploration?
Russian schoolteacher, Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.
How did Tsiolkovsky propose rockets be used for space exploration?
In 1903, he suggested the use of liquid propellants for rockets in order to achieve greater range. He stated that only the escaping gases limited the speed an range of a rocket.
Who is the "Father of Modern Astronautics?"
Who first began experimenting with solid-propellant rockets but then moved to liquid fuel as a propellant?
Robert H. Goddard
Goddard's first successful liquid-propellant rocket was in what year and was the forerunner of today's rockets?
Goddard's liquid propellant was composed of liquid ___________ and ___________.
What were the three innovative features on Goddard's liquid-propelled rockets?
Gyroscopic system for flight control, a payload compartment, and a parachute recovery system.
What rocket design did Goddard believe was best for achieving higher altitudes?
Who is known as the "Father of Rocketry?"
Robert H. Goddard
Whose writings began the eruption of small rocket societies around the globe?
What German rocket society led the development for the V-2 rocket?
Society for Space Travel
How was the V-2 so powerful?
With its explosive warhead, it could devastate whole city blocks. Germany used this weapon against London in WWII.
The V-2 was built under the directorship of whom?
Wernher von Braun, a German, who after the war, headed up the US rocket program.
With the fall of Germany, the Allies captured many unused V-2 rockets and other components. German rocket scientists went where after the war ended?
Some went to the United States, others to the Soviet Union.
Von Braun and his scientists signed contracts to work for the US Army. What was his duty?
Von Braun and his team used captured V-2s to teach American scientists and engineers about rocketry.
In the Soviet Union, who was leading Russian scientists in rocket development?
Sergei Korolev who led the development of the first successful Soviet intercontinental ballistic missile in August 1957.
In October 1957, the Soviet Union launched the world's first artificial satellite, ___________.
Who is considered the "Father of the Soviet Space Program?"
Who was the Space race between?
US and USSR
The United States began a program of high-altitude atmospheric sounding rockets, but then developed a variety of medium and long-range intercontinental ballistic missiles. These became the starting points for what?
The US space program
What early missiles, known as rocket launch vehicles, launched satellites and astronauts into space?
Redstone, Atlas, and Titan
What is a launch vehicle?
A rocket system that lifts a spacecraft. It gives the spacecraft enough force to reach orbit. They propelled people and cargo into space.
On January 31, 1958, the US launched what spacecraft that recognized the Van Allen radiation belt around Earth held in place by Earth's magnetic field.
When Explorer I launched in October 1958, the US formally organized what space program that became the civilian agency with the goal of peaceful exploration of space for the benefit of all humankind?
National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)
What governmental department became responsible for research and development in the area of military aerospace activities?
The Department of Defense (DoD)
Who became the first person to orbit the Earth in April of 1961?
Yuri Gagarin, a Russian
Who became the first American in space?
Alan Shepard aboard the Mercury capsule, Freedom 7
What happened to the Redstone rocket that sent Shepard into space?
It was not powerful to get into orbit, so it lasted only 15 minutes and went up to an altitude of 187 kilometers.
What did President John F. Kennedy announce May 25, 1961, even though the Soviet Union was ahead of the space race?
Objective of putting a man on the Moon by the end of the decade.
Who became the first American to orbit the Earth aboard the Mercury capsule, Friendship 7, in February 1962?
John Glenn was launched by what more powerful rocket that remained in orbit for 4 hours and 55 minutes?
The Atlas rocket powered the Mercury missions until what?
The larger Centaur rocket booster was added to it and the Titan rockets.
When the US began unmanned space program research, the program aimed at supporting what missions?
Exploring the manned lunar landing program
The Titan II launched what missions in 1965-1966 which was designed to carry two crew members?
The Gemini missions
What was the purpose of the Gemini missions?
Expanding our experience in space and preparing the U.S. for manned lunar landing on the Moon. They paved the way for the Apollo missions by demonstrating rendezvous and docking procedures.
What was the third manned space program that began in 1967 and ended in 1975?
Because launching men to the moon required much larger spacecraft than what was available, so the US developed what launch vehicles?
Saturn: Saturn I, 1B, and V. Saturn I and 1B were large two-stage liquid-propellant launch vehicles assembled from the components of other rockets.
In October 1968, a Saturn 1B launched the first three-person mission, _______________.
After Apollo 7, the three-stage Saturn V was developed with what goal?
Send humans to the Moon
When did Neil Armstrong become the first man to walk on the Moon?
July 20, 1969
The mission that put Neil Armstrong on the Moon and was powered by the Saturn V launch vehicle was what?
After putting man on the mood, the next space project of the US was what?
Skylab - first US space station
What launch vehicle was used to put Skylab into space?
What launch vehicle was used to launch crews to the space station?
When was Skylab launched?
Skylab had three separate missions between what years?
Which one of Skylab's three missions was the longest and how long did it last?
The last one was the longest lasting 84 days.
After the space station mission, the US concentrated on what?
A reusable launch system, the Space Transportation System (STS).
The STS was proficient in what ways?
It used solid rocket boosters and three main engines to launch the shuttle orbiter. The reusable boosters fell off about two minutes into the flight. Parachutes deployed to decelerate the solid rocket boosters for a safe splashdown in the Atlantic Ocean, where ships recovered them.
The STS is commonly referred to as what?
The Space Shuttle
The Space Shuttle was used for what?
Transportation to space and back to Earth
A rocket can be loosely defined as what?
A chamber enclosing a gas under pressure
What is a good example of a rocket?
How is the enclosed gas in a rocket produced that makes it differ from a balloon?
A solid or liquid burning propellant produces the gas.
What does Newton's first law of motion state?
A body at rest remains at rest and a body in motion tends to stay in motion at a constant velocity unless acted on by an outside, or unbalanced, force.
What is the opposite of rest?
Define thrust in relation to rockets.
The amount of push used to get the rocket traveling upwards.
What is inertia?
The tendency of an object at rest to stay at rest and an object in motion to stay in motion.
What is Newton's second law of motion?
The rate of change in the momentum of a body is proportional to the force acting upon the body and is in the direction of the force.
What are the three parts of the equation for Newton's second law of motion?
Force = mass*acceleration
What is acceleration?
The rate of change in velocity with respect to time.
What natural component must be considered with respect to Newton's second law?
What is Newton's third law of motion?
For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
Explain how Newton's third law of motion is displayed when a rocket takes off.
A rocket can lift off from a launch pad only when it expels gas out of its engine. The rocket pushes on the gas, and the gas in turn pushes on the rocket. This expelling power is enough to send the rocket flying upward. The thrust from the expelling gases must be greater than the weight of the rocket.
What are the four major systems of modern rockets?
Airframe, guidance, control, and propulsion
The four major systems of modern rockets work together to accomplish what?
Delivering the payload, whatever the rocket is carrying. or instance, the payload could explosives or satellites.
What does the airframe of a rocket provide?
It provides the shape of the rocket and all of the other systems are contained within it. It must be light-weight, yet structurally strong. It must withstand heat, stress, and a lot of vibration. It serves as a wall for the propellant tanks.
The airframe of the Atlas is how thin?
Thinner than a dime. It must be pressurized when there is no fuel to keep it from collapsing.
What does the guidance system of a modern rocket do?
It is the brain of the rocket. It is responsible for getting the rocket and its payload to its destination. It is a self-contained electronic unit with a computer. It is programmed to guide the rocket on a desired trajectory. There is also a radio link between the rocket's mission controllers and its guidance system.
How big is the guidance system in relation to the rest of the rocket?
The control system of a rocket does what?
It takes the information from the guidance system and steers the rocket to its destination. It keeps the rocket stable.
What are some examples of controls that can help steer or stabilize a rocket?
Vanes, movable fins, gimbaled nozzles, and attitude control rockets
What are vanes and how do they help?
Vanes are small fins that are placed inside the exhaust and when tilted, the exhaust changes the direction the rocket is going.
What is a gimbaled nozzle and how does it help?
A gimbaled nozzle sways the exhaust passing through it. It also changes the rocket's direction.
What is the most commonly used control system on a rocket and how does it help?
The attitude control rockets are the most commonly used. Small clusters of engines are placed all around the vehicle. By firing the right combination of these small rockets, the vehicle can be turned in any direction.
What does the propulsion system of a rocket include?
Everything directly related to propelling the rocket - propellant used, the containers for the propellant, and the engine.
What is the propellant used by rockets?
It is the fuel and oxidizer. The fuel is the chemical the rocket burns and the oxidizer (oxygen) must be present. Rockets must carry oxygen with them because there is none in space.
How long before liquid propellants were solid propellants used?
Solid propellant is carried where in the rocket?
The fuel of a solid propellant is usually made up of what?
A mixture of hydrogen compounds and carbon
How is liquid propellant carried in a rocket?
Liquid propellants are carried in compartments separate from the combustion chamber, one for the fuel and one for the oxidizer.
Liquid propellant is usually made up of what?
kerosene or liquid hydrogen
The oxidizer for a liquid propellant is usually what?
Which is heavier, a liquid or solid propellant?
Which is easier to control, a liquid or solid propellant?
Who was the driver of a car called the "Blue Flame" that set the land speed record of 622.407 mph on October 28, 1970?
The "Blue Flame" was how long, tall, and weighed how much?
42 feet long, 7' 6", 7,700 lbs.
What fuel and oxidizer did the "Blue Flame" use?
pressure-fed methane; hydrogen peroxide
The "Blue Flame" had a thrust power close to what?
What car broke the sound barrier?
The Thrust SSC
The Thrust SSC that broke the sound barrier was not rocket-powered but what-powered?
What year did a British team become the first to break the sound barrier on land in a jet-powered car?
Who put together the British team that became the first to break the sound barrier in 1997?
Richard Noble, who directed a project that put together the Thrust SSC
Name the members of the British team that put together the Thrust SSC (Super Sonic Car).
Richard Noble, Glynne Bowsher, Jeremy Bliss, Andy Green (driver).
When did Andy Green break the Land Speed Record and sound barrier with a speed of 763 mph?
October 15, 1997
Where did Andy Green break the official record with the Thrust SSC?
Black Rock Desert in Nevada
The Thrust SSC was powered by what engines from which fighter as well as being equipped with afterburners?
It was powered by two Rolls Royce Spey Turbofan engines from an American McDonnell F-4 Phantom fighter
The two engines equipped on the Thrust SSC developed a combined thrust of how much horsepower?
An American and Canadian team have joined together to bring the world land speed record back to North America in the what program?
North American Eagle Land Speed Program
What is the challenge of the North American Eagle Land Speed Program?
To make the transition from subsonic to supersonic speed and break the current land speed record of 763 mph.
The NAELSP team is using what fighter to make their runs?
Modified F-104 Starfighter
The latest project, project Bloodhound SSC, overcame its first challenge - having enough thrust. What was its second challenge?
The extra thrust caused the car nose to pitch down, destabilizing the whole vehicle.
How was the Bloodhound SSC redesigned?
The jet engine was positioned over the rocket.
In 1995, Dr. Peter H Diamandis conceived an award called the "Ansari X-Prize" which would do what?
Encourage private space flight
The requirements for private space flight award Ansari X-Prize included what?
a Non-governmental-supported aerospace craft would have to fly to an altitude of 100 km or 62 miles above the surface of the Earth and return safely. Then, within a period of 2 weeks, the same flight would have to be repeated. On both occasions, the vehicle was required to carry the weight of three adult humans.
What was the prize for the first privately-supported space launch?
The organizers of the Ansari X-Prize set what altitude as the line that defines the beginning of space?
62 miles or 100 km
How many teams competed for the Ansari X-Prize over the 8 year period?
26 teams from 7 different countries
On June 21 2004, what did Mike Melvill, a test pilot for Scaled Composites of Mojave Aerospace Ventures, accomplish?
SpaceShipOne flew a record-breaking flight.
Mike Melvill reached an altitude of how high, making him the first private pilot to earn NASA's highly-coveted astronaut wings?
On September 29 2004, Melvill flew SpaceShipOne again for the first official mission to meet the requirements set forth in the rules of competition for the X-Prize. He accomplished all requirements on that flight. On October 4, who won the prize after Melvill?
Brian Binnie's flight marked what for the Soviet Union?
The 47th anniversary of the launch of Sputnik
Who/What was awarded the $10M prize?
Who is building the first "airline to space?"
British billionair Sir Richard Branson with Virgin Galactic
SpaceShipOne prompted the exploration of general public transportation in spacecraft ____________________.
SpaceShipTwo's purpose would be what?
To take paying passengers on a sub-orbital flight into the thermosphere across the world in about 2.5 hours.
SpaceShipTwo's single hybrid rocket motor is named what?
What SpaceShipTwo will be accompanied by what mothership?
Where will the first spaceliner take place?
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