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Terms in this set (44)
Muslim nationalist in India; originally a member of the National Congress party; became leader of Muslim League; traded Muslim support for British during World War II for promises of a separate Muslim state after the war; first president of Pakistan.
Leader of the Indian independence movement and advocate of nonviolent resistance. He became leader of the Indian National Congress in 1920. He appealed to the poor,led nonviolent demonstrations against British colonial rule, and was jailed many times. Soon after independence he was assassinated for attempting to stop Hindu-Muslim rioting.
Literally, "truth force"; Mahatma Gandhi's political philosophy, which advocated confrontational but nonviolent political action
The All-India Muslim League, created in 1906, was a response to the Indian national Congress in India's struggle for independance from Britain; the League's leader, Muhammad Ali Jinnah, argued that regions of India with a Muslim majority should form a separate state called Pakistan
Indian National Congress
Organization established in 1885 by Western-educated elite Indians in an effort to win a voice in governance of India; over time, the INC became a major popular movement that won India's independence from Britain
The event in India where British soldiers killed 379 unarmed Indian nationalists
The act of dividing or partitioning.
Turkish nationalist leader who became the first president of modern Turkey and set about to modernize and Westernize Turkey, including making it more secular
He led the bloodless coup which toppled the monarchy of King Farouk and heralded a new period of modernization and socialist reform in Egypt together with a profound advancement of pan-Arab nationalism
movement for Jews to return to the Promised Land(Israel)
Statement issued by Britain's Foreign Secretary Arthur Balfour in 1917 favoring the establishment of a Jewish national homeland in Palestine.
In 1956 Egypt seized suez canal, egypts Gamal Abdel Nasser sent troops to take british controlled canal over anger for loss of us and british financial support. british make agreement with france and israel to retake canal. however, with us and ussr pressured forced europeans and israel to withdraw from egypt. ended suex canal crisis
Chinese Nationalist party founded by Sun Yat-sen in 1919; drew support from local warlords and Chinese criminal underworld; initially forged alliance with Communists in 1924; dominated by Chiang Kai-shek after 1925
A military officer who succeeded Sun Yat-sen as leader of the Guomindang or Nationalist party in China in the mid-1920; became the most powerful leader in China in the early 1930s, but his Nationalist forces were defeated and driven from China by the Communists after World War II
Communist leader in revolutionary China; advocated rural reform and role of peasantry in Nationalist revolution; influenced by Li Dazhao; led Communist reaction against Guomindang purges in 1920s, culminating in Long March of 1934; seized control of all of mainland China by 1949; initiated Great Leap forward in 1958
People´s Republic of China
Communist government of mainland China; proclaimed in 1949 following military success of Mao Zedong over forces of Chiang Kai-shek and the Guomindang.
Initiated by Mao Zedong in 1965 to restore his dominance over the pragmatists; disgraced and even killed bureaucrats and intellectuals; called off in 1968.
Creation of large, state-run farms rather than individual holdings; allowed more efficient control over peasants; part of Stalin's economic and political planning; often adopted in other Communist regime
Rich peasants in the Russian Empire who owned larger farms and used hired labour. Were massacred by Stalin after resisting Collectivization
Bolshevik revolutionary, head of the Soviet Communists after 1924, and dictator of the Soviet Union from 1928 to 1953. He led the Soviet Union with an iron fist, using Five-Year Plans to increase industrial production and terror to crush opposition
Five Year Plans
Plans that Joseph Stalin introduced to industrialize the Soviet Union rapidly, beginning in 1928. They set goals for the output of steel, electricity, machinery, and most other products and were enforced by the police powers of the state. They succeeded in making the Soviet Union a major industrial power before World War II.
a time period during the 1930s when there was a worldwide economic depression and mass unemployment
Political philosophy that became predominant in Italy and then Germany during the 1920s and 1930s; attacked weakness of democracy, corruption of capitalism; promised vigorous foreign and military programs; undertook state control of economy to reduce social friction.
Italian Fascist leader after World War I; created first fascist government based on aggressive foreign policy and new nationalist glories.
Members of Italian fascists before WWII. It was led by Mussolini. Helped solidify Mussolini's control
German republic founded after the WWI and the downfall of the German Empire's monarchy.
This dictator was the leader of the Nazi Party. He believed that strong leadership was required to save Germanic society, which was at risk due to Jewish, socialist, democratic, and liberal forces.
Nationalist Socialist Party
National Socialist German Workers' Party, the political party, led by Adolf Hitler, that ruled Germany from 1933 to 1945. Its members were called Nazis.
Hitler's expansionist theory based on a drive to acquire "living space" for the German people
Spanish General; organized the revolt in Morocco, which led to the Spanish Civil War. Leader of the Nationalists - right wing, supported by Hitler and Mussolini, won the Civil War after three years of fighting.
1938 conference at which European leaders attempted to appease Hitler by turning over the Sudetenland to him in exchange for promise that Germany would not expand Germany's territory any further.
1938, Hitler wanted the Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and to stop him from waging war the British and French prime ministers met with him and gave him the land without consulting Czechoslovakia.
"lightning war" used by Germans based off of speed and surprise
Hitler and Joseph Stalin agreed not to attack each other but divided Poland for an easy win, but Germany didn't keep true to their word and attacked Stalin later
Rape of Nanjing
brutal warfare against civilians and repressive occupation where Japanese forces used methods of warfare that led to mass death and suffering; Japanese soldiers raped 7,000 women, murdered hundreds of thousands of unarmed soldiers and civilians, and burned 1/3 of the homes in Nanjing
Invasion of Ethiopia
talian invasion of Ethiopia revenge for its earlier
defeat by the Ethiopians in 1896.
500,000 Ethiopians died 5,000 Italians.
League of Nations imposed sanctions on Italy
No attempt to prevent Italy's navy from
using the Suez Canal
France and Britain not willing to press Italy
because they needed Italy's help in keeping Hitler in check.
In 1936, the League lifted its sanction
Hitler further encouraged that the international
community lacked the will to enforce peace
American base in Hawaii that was bombed by Japanese planes on December 7, 1941. The bombing of Pearl Harbor forced the United States to enter the war.
In World War II, the nations of Germany, Italy, and Japan, which had formed an alliance in 1936.
Alliance of Great Britain, Soviet Union, United States, and France during World War II.
French collaborationist government established in 1940 in southern France following defeat of French armies by the Germans
Nazi solution that entailed the attempted murder of every Jew living in Europe
Name given to the genocide of as many as 12 million people by the Nazi regime; 6 million of these were Jews. The Holocaust was notable for its especially brutal, systematic, and premeditated nature.
nuclear attacks during World War II against the Empire of Japan by the United States of America at the order of U.S. President Harry S. Truman
Series of trials in 1945 conducted by an International Military Tribunal in which former Nazi leaders were charged with crimes against peace, crimes against humanity, and war crimes
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