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Nail Structure & Growth

Workbook Questions
STUDY
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The natural nail is a hard, protective plate made of a protein called...
Keratin
The keratin found in the natural nail is ______ the keratin found in the hair or skin.
Harder than
Appearance of a healthy nail:
Whitish and translucent in appearance with a pinkish nail bed showing through
The nail plate is relatively _____ to water, allowing water to pass more easily than it will pass through normal skin of equal thickness.
Porous
The water content of the nail is between....
15% and 25%
Water directly affects the nail's...
Flexibility
The lower the water content of a nail...
The more rigid the nail becomes.
To reduce water loss and improve nail flexibility
Use an oil based nail conditioner or nail polish to coat the plate.
The portion of living skin on which the nail plate sits
Nail bed
The nail bed is supplied with many nerves and is attached to the nail plate by a thin layer of tissues called the...
Bed epithelium
The natural nail is formed in the...
Matrix
The visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is called...
The lunula
Growth of the nails can be affected if the individual is in poor health, has a nail disorder or disease or _______
If the matrix has been injured
The most visible and functional part of the nail module
Nail plate
The nail plate is constructed of...
About 100 layers of nail cells
The pat of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe
Free edge
The dead, colorless tissues attached to the nail plate
Cuticle
Purpose of the cuticle
Seal the space between the natural nail plate and living skin above to protect entry of microorganisms and prevent infection
Eponychium
The living skin at the base of the nail plate covering the matrix area
Eponychium is...
Living tissue
Cuticle is...
Dead tissue
The slightly thickened layer of skin that lies underneath the free edge of the nail plate
Hyponychium
A tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or holds an organ in place
Ligament
Specialized ligaments attach the nail bed and matrix to the...
Underlying bone.
Specialized ligaments that attach the nail bed and matrix to the underlying bone are located where?
At the base of the matrix and around the edges of the nail bed.
Folds of normal skin that surround the nail plate which forms nail grooves
Nail folds
Nail groves are...
Slits or furrows on the sides of the nail on which it moves as it grows
Growth of the nail plate is affected by...
Nutrition, exercise and health
1/10" per month is the _______ in the normal adult
Average rate of nail growth
Nails grow ______ in the winter than they do the summer
Slower
Children's nails grow more
Rapidly
Elderly person's nails grow
More slowly
The nail of the ___________ grows fastest.
Middle finger
The nail of the ________ grows slowest.
Thumb
Hormonial changes
Cause the growth rates of the nail to increase dramatically during pregnancy.
Disease, injury and infection
Will cause the shape or thickness of the nail plate to change
4-6 months
Replacement of the natural nail takes
9 months
Full replacement of toenails
Nails _____ shed periodically
Do not