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Workbook Questions

The natural nail is a hard, protective plate made of a protein called...


The keratin found in the natural nail is ______ the keratin found in the hair or skin.

Harder than

Appearance of a healthy nail:

Whitish and translucent in appearance with a pinkish nail bed showing through

The nail plate is relatively _____ to water, allowing water to pass more easily than it will pass through normal skin of equal thickness.


The water content of the nail is between....

15% and 25%

Water directly affects the nail's...


The lower the water content of a nail...

The more rigid the nail becomes.

To reduce water loss and improve nail flexibility

Use an oil based nail conditioner or nail polish to coat the plate.

The portion of living skin on which the nail plate sits

Nail bed

The nail bed is supplied with many nerves and is attached to the nail plate by a thin layer of tissues called the...

Bed epithelium

The natural nail is formed in the...


The visible part of the matrix that extends from underneath the living skin is called...

The lunula

Growth of the nails can be affected if the individual is in poor health, has a nail disorder or disease or _______

If the matrix has been injured

The most visible and functional part of the nail module

Nail plate

The nail plate is constructed of...

About 100 layers of nail cells

The pat of the nail plate that extends over the tip of the finger or toe

Free edge

The dead, colorless tissues attached to the nail plate


Purpose of the cuticle

Seal the space between the natural nail plate and living skin above to protect entry of microorganisms and prevent infection


The living skin at the base of the nail plate covering the matrix area

Eponychium is...

Living tissue

Cuticle is...

Dead tissue

The slightly thickened layer of skin that lies underneath the free edge of the nail plate


A tough band of fibrous tissue that connects bones or holds an organ in place


Specialized ligaments attach the nail bed and matrix to the...

Underlying bone.

Specialized ligaments that attach the nail bed and matrix to the underlying bone are located where?

At the base of the matrix and around the edges of the nail bed.

Folds of normal skin that surround the nail plate which forms nail grooves

Nail folds

Nail groves are...

Slits or furrows on the sides of the nail on which it moves as it grows

Growth of the nail plate is affected by...

Nutrition, exercise and health

1/10" per month is the _______ in the normal adult

Average rate of nail growth

Nails grow ______ in the winter than they do the summer


Children's nails grow more


Elderly person's nails grow

More slowly

The nail of the ___________ grows fastest.

Middle finger

The nail of the ________ grows slowest.


Hormonial changes

Cause the growth rates of the nail to increase dramatically during pregnancy.

Disease, injury and infection

Will cause the shape or thickness of the nail plate to change

4-6 months

Replacement of the natural nail takes

9 months

Full replacement of toenails

Nails _____ shed periodically

Do not

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