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Chapter 40: Care of Patients with Hematologic Problems
Terms in this set (79)
A nurse caring for a client with sickle cell disease (SCD) reviews the client's laboratory work. Which finding should the nurse report to the provider?
Creatinine: 2.9 mg/dL
An elevated creatinine indicates kidney damage, which occurs in SCD.
A client hospitalized with sickle cell crisis frequently asks for opioid pain medications, often shortly after receiving a dose. The nurses on the unit believe the client is drug seeking. When the client requests pain medication, what action by the nurse is best?
Give the client pain medication if it is time for another dose.
Clients with sickle cell crisis often have severe pain that is managed with up to 48 hours of IV opioid analgesics. Even if the client is addicted and drug seeking, he or she is still in extreme pain. If the client can receive another dose of medication, the nurse should provide it.
A client in sickle cell crisis is dehydrated and in the emergency department. The nurse plans to start an IV. Which fluid choice is best?
0.45% normal saline
Because clients in sickle cell crisis are often dehydrated, the fluid of choice is a hypotonic solution such as 0.45% normal saline.
A client presents to the emergency department in sickle cell crisis. What intervention by the nurse takes priority?
All actions are appropriate, but remembering the ABCs, oxygen would come first. The main problem in a sickle cell crisis is tissue and organ hypoxia, so providing oxygen helps halt the process.
A client has a serum ferritin level of 8 ng/mL and microcytic red blood cells. What action by the nurse is best?
Perform a Hemoccult test on the client's stools.
This client has laboratory findings indicative of iron deficiency anemia. The most common cause of this disorder is blood loss, often from the GI tract. The nurse should perform a Hemoccult test on the client's stools.
A client has Crohn's disease. What type of anemia is this client most at risk for developing?
Folic acid deficiency
Malabsorption syndromes such as Crohn's disease leave a client prone to folic acid deficiency.
A nurse in a hematology clinic is working with four clients who have polycythemia vera. Which client should the nurse see first?
Client who reports shortness of breath
Clients with polycythemia vera often have clotting abnormalities due to the hyperviscous blood with sluggish flow. The client reporting shortness of breath may have a pulmonary embolism and should be seen first.
A nursing student is caring for a client with leukemia. The student asks why the client is still at risk for infection when the client's white blood cell count (WBC) is high. What response by the registered nurse is best?
"Those WBCs are abnormal and don't provide protection."
In leukemia, the WBCs are abnormal and do not provide protection to the client against infection.
The family of a neutropenic client reports the client "is not acting right." What action by the nurse is the priority?
Assess the client for infection.
Neutropenic clients often do not have classic manifestations of infection, but infection is the most common cause of death in neutropenic clients. The nurse should assess for infection.
A nurse is caring for a client who is about to receive a bone marrow transplant. To best help the client cope with the long recovery period, what action by the nurse is best?
Help the client find things to hope for each day of recovery.
Providing hope is an essential nursing function during treatment for any disease process, but especially during the recovery period after bone marrow transplantation, which can take up to 3 weeks. The nurse can help the client look ahead to the recovery period and identify things to hope for during this time.
A nursing student is struggling to understand the process of graft-versus-host disease. What explanation by the nurse instructor is best?
"The donor's cells are actually attacking the client's cells."
Graft versus host disease is an autoimmune-type process in which the donor cells recognize the client's cells as foreign and begin attacking them.
The nurse is caring for a client with leukemia who has the priority problem of fatigue. What action by the client best indicates that an important goal for this problem has been met?
Doing activities of daily living (ADLs) using rest periods
Fatigue is a common problem for clients with leukemia. This client is managing his or her own ADLs using rest periods, which indicates an understanding of fatigue and how to control it.
A nurse is caring for a young male client with lymphoma who is to begin treatment. What teaching topic is a priority?
All teaching topics are important to the client with lymphoma, but for a young male, sperm banking is of particular concern if the client is going to have radiation to the lower abdomen or pelvis.
A client has been admitted after sustaining a humerus fracture that occurred when picking up the family cat. What test result would the nurse correlate to this condition?
Bence-Jones protein in urine
This client has possible multiple myeloma. A positive Bence-Jones protein finding would correlate with this condition.
A client with multiple myeloma demonstrates worsening bone density on diagnostic scans. About what drug does the nurse plan to teach this client?
Zoledronic acid (Zometa)
All the options are drugs used to treat multiple myeloma, but the drug used specifically for bone manifestations is zoledronic acid (Zometa), which is a bisphosphonate. This drug class inhibits bone resorption and is used to treat osteoporosis as well.
A client with autoimmune idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP) has had a splenectomy and returned to the surgical unit 2 hours ago. The nurse assesses the client and finds the abdominal dressing saturated with blood. What action is most important?
Taking a set of vital signs and notifying the surgeon
While some bloody drainage on a new surgical dressing is expected, a saturated dressing is not. This client is already at high risk of bleeding due to the ITP. The nurse should assess vital signs for shock and notify the surgeon immediately.
A client has a platelet count of 9000/mm3. The nurse finds the client confused and mumbling. What action takes priority?
Calling the Rapid Response Team
With a platelet count this low, the client is at high risk of spontaneous bleeding. The most disastrous complication would be intracranial bleeding. The nurse needs to call the Rapid Response Team as this client has manifestations of a sudden neurologic change.
A nurse is preparing to administer a blood transfusion. What action is most important?
Ensuring informed consent is obtained if required
If the facility requires informed consent for transfusions, this action is most important because it precedes the other actions taken during the transfusion. Correctly identifying the client and blood product is a National Patient Safety Goal, and is the most important action after obtaining informed consent.
A nurse is preparing to hang a blood transfusion. Which action is most important?
Putting on a pair of gloves
To prevent bloodborne illness, the nurse should don a pair of gloves prior to hanging the blood.
A client receiving a blood transfusion develops anxiety and low back pain. After stopping the transfusion, what action by the nurse is most important?
Double-checking the client and blood product identification
This client had a hemolytic transfusion reaction, most commonly caused by blood type or Rh incompatibility. The nurse should double-check all identifying information for both the client and blood type.
A client has thrombocytopenia. What client statement indicates the client understands self-management of this condition?
"I usually put ice on bumps or bruises."
The client should be taught to apply ice to areas of minor trauma.
A client has a sickle cell crisis with extreme lower extremity pain. What comfort measure does the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)?
Keep the lower extremities warm.
During a sickle cell crisis, the tissue distal to the occlusion has decreased blood flow and ischemia, leading to pain. Due to decreased blood flow, the client's legs will be cool or cold. The UAP can attempt to keep the client's legs warm
A client admitted for sickle cell crisis is distraught after learning her child also has the disease. What response by the nurse is best?
"I can see you are upset. I can stay here with you a while if you like."
A client with sickle cell disease (SCD) takes hydroxyurea (Droxia). The client presents to the clinic reporting an increase in fatigue. What laboratory result should the nurse report immediately?
White blood cell count: 38,000/mm3
Although individuals with SCD often have elevated white blood cell (WBC) counts, this extreme elevation could indicate leukemia, a complication of taking hydroxyurea. The nurse should report this finding immediately.
A nurse is caring for four clients with leukemia. After hand-off report, which client should the nurse see first?
Client who had two bloody diarrhea stools this morning
The client who had two bloody diarrhea stools that morning may be hemorrhaging in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and should be assessed first.
A client has frequent hospitalizations for leukemia and is worried about functioning as a parent to four small children. What action by the nurse would be most helpful?
Assist the client to make "sick day" plans for household responsibilities.
While all options are reasonable choices, the best option is to help the client make sick day plans, as that is more comprehensive and inclusive than the other options, which focus on a single item.
A client has been treated for a deep vein thrombus and today presents to the clinic with petechiae. Laboratory results show a platelet count of 42,000/mm3. The nurse reviews the client's medication list to determine if the client is taking which drug?
This client has manifestations of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia
The nurse assesses a client's oral cavity and makes the discovery shown in the photo below:
What action by the nurse is most appropriate?
Teach the client about cobalamin therapy.
This condition is known as glossitis, and is characteristic of B12 anemia. If the anemia is a pernicious anemia, it is treated with cobalamin.
A nurse working with clients with sickle cell disease (SCD) teaches about self-management to prevent exacerbations and sickle cell crises. What factors should clients be taught to avoid? (Select all that apply.)
Several factors cause red blood cells to sickle in SCD, including dehydration, extreme stress, high altitudes, and pregnancy. Strenuous exercise can also cause sickling, but not unless it is very vigorous.
A student studying leukemias learns the risk factors for developing this disorder. Which risk factors does this include? (Select all that apply.)
Ionizing radiation exposure
Chemical and ionizing radiation exposure and viral infections are known risk factors for developing leukemia. Eating genetically modified food and receiving vaccinations are not known risk factors.
A client has Hodgkin's lymphoma, Ann Arbor stage Ib. For what manifestations should the nurse assess the client? (Select all that apply.)
In this stage, the disease is located in a single lymph node region or a single non-lymph node site. The client displays night sweats, persistent fever, and weight loss. Headache and urinary problems are not related.
A client has a platelet count of 25,000/mm3. What actions does the nurse delegate to the unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP)? (Select all that apply.)
Help the client choose soft foods from the menu.
Shave the male client with an electric razor.
Use a lift sheet when needed to re-position the client.
This client has thrombocytopenia and requires bleeding precautions. These include oral hygiene with a soft-bristled toothbrush or swabs, avoiding rectal trauma, eating soft foods, shaving with an electric razor, and using a lift sheet to re-position the client.
A student nurse is helping a registered nurse with a blood transfusion. Which actions by the student are most appropriate? (Select all that apply.)
Hanging the blood product using normal saline and a filtered tubing set
Taking a full set of vital signs prior to starting the blood transfusion
Using gloves to start the client's IV if needed and to handle the blood product
Correct actions prior to beginning a blood transfusion include hanging the product with saline and the correct filtered blood tubing, taking a full set of vital signs prior to starting, and using gloves. Someone stays with the client for the first 15 to 30 minutes of the transfusion. Two registered nurses must verify the client's identity and blood compatibility.
A student nurse is learning about blood transfusion compatibilities. What information does this include? (Select all that apply.)
Donor blood type A can donate to recipient blood type AB.
Donor blood type O can donate to anyone.
Blood type A can be donated to people who have blood types A or AB. Blood type O can be given to anyone. Blood type B can be donated to people who have blood types B or AB. Blood type AB can only go to recipients with blood type AB.
A client with chronic anemia has had many blood transfusions. What medications does the nurse anticipate teaching the client about adding to the regimen? (Select all that apply.)
Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp)
Epoetin alfa (Epogen)
arbepoetin alfa and epoetin alfa are both red blood cell colony-stimulating factors that will help increase the production of red blood cells.
A nurse is preparing to administer a blood transfusion to an older adult. Understanding age-related changes, what alterations in the usual protocol are necessary for the nurse to implement? (Select all that apply.)
Assess vital signs more often.
Hold other IV fluids running.
The older adult needs vital signs monitored as often as every 15 minutes for the duration of the transfusion because changes may be the only indication of a transfusion-related problem. To prevent fluid overload, the nurse obtains a prescription to hold other running IV fluids during the transfusion.
A client has heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). The student nurse asks how this is treated. About what drugs does the nurse instructor teach? (Select all that apply.)
The standard drugs used to treat HIT are argatroban, bivalirudin, and lepirudin. (LAB)
A client has received a bone marrow transplant and is waiting for engraftment. What actions by the nurse are most appropriate? (Select all that apply.)
Placing the client in protective precautions
Teaching visitors appropriate hand hygiene
Telling visitors not to bring live flowers or plants
The client waiting for engraftment after bone marrow transplant has no white cells to protect him or her against infection. The client is on protective precautions and visitors are taught hand hygiene. No fresh flowers or plants are allowed due to the standing water in the vase or container that may harbor organisms. Limiting protein is not a healthy option and will not promote engraftment.
The nurse is caring for a client with sickle cell disease. Which action is most effective in reducing the potential for sepsis in this client?
Frequent and thorough handwashing
Prevention and early detection strategies are used to protect the client in sickle cell crisis from infection. Frequent and thorough handwashing is of the utmost importance
Which intervention most effectively protects a client with thrombocytopenia?
Encouraging the use of an electric shaver
The client with thrombocytopenia should be advised to use an electric shaver instead of a razor. Any small cuts or nicks can cause problems because of the prolonged clotting time
A client with leukemia is being discharged from the hospital. After hearing the nurse's instructions to keep regularly scheduled follow-up provider appointments, the client says, "I don't have transportation." How does the nurse respond?
"The local American Cancer Society may be able to help."
Which client statement indicates that stem cell transplantation that is scheduled to take place in his home is not a viable option?
"I was a nurse, so I can take care of myself."
Stem cell transplantation in the home setting requires support, assistance, and coordination from others. The client cannot manage this type of care on his own. The client must be emotionally stable to be a candidate for this type of care.
The nurse is to administer packed red blood cells to a client. How does the nurse ensure proper client identification?
Reviews all information with another registered nurse
With another registered nurse, verify the client by name and number, check blood compatibility, and note expiration time. Human error is the most common cause of ABO incompatibility reactions, even for experienced nurses.
What is the most important environmental risk for developing leukemia?
According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), the only proven lifestyle-related risk factor for leukemia is cigarette smoking.
A client who has been newly diagnosed with leukemia is admitted to the hospital. Avoiding which potential problem takes priority in the client's nursing care plan?
The main objective in caring for a newly diagnosed client with leukemia is protection from infection.
The nurse is assessing the endurance level of a client in a long-term care facility. What question does the nurse ask to get this information?
"Do you feel more tired after you get up and go to the bathroom?"
Asking about feeling tired after using the bathroom is pertinent to the client's activity and provides a comparison. The specific activity helps the client relate to the question and provide needed answers.
The nurse is teaching a client with vitamin B12 deficiency anemia about dietary intake. Which type of food does the nurse encourage the client to eat?
Dairy products such as milk, cheese, and eggs will provide the vitamin B12 that the client needs.
A client with thrombocytopenia is being discharged. What information does the nurse incorporate into the teaching plan for this client?
"Use a soft-bristled toothbrush." Correct
Using a soft-bristled toothbrush reduces the risk for bleeding in the client with thrombocytopenia
The nurse is teaching a client about induction therapy for acute leukemia. Which client statement indicates a need for additional education?
"After this therapy, I will not need to have any more."
Induction therapy is not a cure for leukemia, it is a treatment; therefore, the client needs more education to understand this
A client with multiple myeloma reports bone pain that is unrelieved by analgesics. How does the nurse respond to this client's problem?
"Would you like to try some relaxation techniques?"
Because most clients with multiple myeloma have local or generalized bone pain, analgesics and alternative approaches for pain management, such as relaxation techniques, are used for pain relief. This also offers the client a choice. Before prescribing additional medication, other avenues should be explored to relieve this client's pain.
The nurse is reinforcing information about genetic counseling to a client with sickle cell disease who has a healthy spouse. What information does the nurse include?
"The sickle cell trait will be inherited by your children."
The children of the client with sickle cell disease will inherit the sickle cell trait, but may not inherit the disease. If both parents have the sickle cell trait, their children could get the disease.
The nurse is caring for a client who is in sickle cell crisis. What action does the nurse perform first?
Provide pain medications as needed.
The nurse is caring for a client with neutropenia. Which clinical manifestation indicates that an infection is present or should be ruled out?
Wheezes or crackles
Wheezes or crackles in the neutropenic client may be the first symptom of infection in the lungs.
The nurse is caring for a client with neutropenia who has a suspected infection. Which intervention does the nurse implement first?
Obtain requested cultures.
Obtaining cultures to identify the infectious agent correctly is the priority for this client.
The nurse is assessing a newly admitted client with thrombocytopenia. Which factor needs immediate intervention?
The client with thrombocytopenia has a high risk for bleeding. The nosebleed should be attended to immediately
A client who is receiving a blood transfusion suddenly exclaims to the nurse, "I don't feel right!" What does the nurse do next?
Stop the transfusion.
The client may be experiencing a transfusion reaction; the nurse should stop the transfusion immediately.
Which client is at greatest risk for having a hemolytic transfusion reaction?
A 34-year-old client with type O blood
Hemolytic transfusion reactions are caused by blood type or Rh incompatibility. When blood that contains antigens different from the client's own antigens is infused, antigen-antibody complexes are formed in the client's blood. Type O is considered the universal donor, but not the universal recipient.
The nurse is educating a group of young women who have sickle cell disease (SCD). Which comment from a class member requires correction?
"Getting an annual 'flu shot' would be dangerous for me."
The client with SCD should receive annual influenza and pneumonia vaccinations; this helps prevent the development of these infections, which could cause a sickle cell crisis.
The nurse is transfusing 2 units of packed red blood cells to a postoperative client. What post-transfusion electrolyte imbalance does the nurse want to rule out?
During transfusion, some cells are damaged. These cells release potassium, thus raising the client's serum potassium level (hyperkalemia). This complication is especially common with packed cells and whole-blood products.
The nurse is infusing platelets to a client who is scheduled for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant. What procedure does the nurse follow?
Infuse the transfusion over a 15- to 30-minute period.
The volume of platelets—200 or 300 mL (standard amount)—needs to be infused rapidly over a 15- to 30-minute period.
The nurse is mentoring a recent graduate RN about administering blood and blood products. What does the nurse include in the data?
Verify with another RN all of the data on blood products.
All data are checked by two RNs. Human error is the most common cause of ABO incompatibilities in administering blood and blood products.
An RN from pediatrics has "floated" to the medical-surgical unit. Which client is assigned to the float nurse?
A 42-year-old with sickle cell disease receiving a transfusion of packed red blood cells
Because sickle cell disease is commonly diagnosed during childhood, the pediatric nurse will be familiar with the disease and with red blood cell transfusion; therefore, he or she should be assigned to the client with sickle cell disease.
Which would be an appropriate task to delegate to unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP) working on a medical-surgical unit?
Obtaining vital signs on a client receiving a blood transfusion
A hematology unit is staffed by RNs, LPN/LVNs, and unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP). When the nurse manager is reviewing documentation of staff members, which entry indicates that the staff member needs education about his or her appropriate level of responsibility and client care?
"Client reporting increased shortness of breath; oxygen increased to 4 L by nasal cannula. M.N., UAP"
Determination of the need for oxygen and administration of oxygen should be done by licensed nurses who have the education and scope of practice required to administer it.
The nurse assesses the client with which hematologic problem first?
An 81-year-old with thrombocytopenia and an increase in abdominal girth
An increase in abdominal girth in a client with thrombocytopenia indicates possible hemorrhage; this warrants further assessment immediately.
The nurse assesses multiple clients who are receiving transfusions of blood components. Which assessment indicates the need for the nurse's immediate action?
Respiratory rate of 36 breaths/min in a client receiving red blood cells
An increased respiratory rate indicates a possible hemolytic transfusion reaction; the nurse should quickly stop the transfusion and assess the client further.
Which client does the nurse assign as a roommate for the client with aplastic anemia?
A 28-year-old with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency anemia who is receiving mannitol (Osmitrol) Correct
Because clients with aplastic anemia usually have low white blood cell counts that place them at high risk for infection, roommates such as the client with G6PD deficiency anemia should be free from infection or infection risk.
The nurse is transfusing a unit of whole blood to a client when the health care provider requests the following: "Furosemide (Lasix) 20 mg IV push." What does the nurse do?
Wait until the transfusion has been completed to administer furosemide.
Completing the transfusion before administering furosemide is the best course of action in this scenario. Drugs are not to be administered with infusing blood products; they can interact with the blood, causing risks for the client.
A 56-year-old client admitted with a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia is prescribed IV cytosine arabinoside for 7 days and an infusion of daunorubicin for the first 3 days. What is the major side effect of this therapy?
Bone marrow suppression
Intravenous cytosine arabinoside and daunorubicin are a commonly prescribed course of aggressive chemotherapy, and bone marrow suppression is a major side effect.
A 56-year-old client admitted with a diagnosis of acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is prescribed IV cytosine arabinoside for 7 days and an infusion of daunorubicin for the first 3 days. An infection develops. What knowledge does the nurse use to determine that the appropriate antibiotic has been prescribed for this client?
Checking the culture and sensitivity test results to be certain that the requested antibiotic is effective against the organism causing the infection
Checking the culture and sensitivity test results to be certain that the requested antibiotic is effective against the organism causing the infection is the best action to take.
A 32-year-old client is recovering from a sickle cell crisis. His discomfort is controlled with pain medications and he is to be discharged. What medication does the nurse expect to be prescribed for him before his discharge?
Hydroxyurea (Droxia) has been used successfully to reduce sickling of cells and pain episodes associated with sickle cell disease (SCD).
A 32-year-old client recovering from a sickle cell crisis is to be discharged. The nurse says, "You and all clients with sickle cell disease are at risk for infection because of your decreased spleen function. For this reason, you will most likely be prescribed an antibiotic before discharge." Which drug does the nurse anticipate the health care provider will request?
Penicillin V (Pen-V K)
Prophylactic therapy with twice-daily oral penicillin reduces the incidence of pneumonia and other streptococcal infections and is the correct drug to use.
A recently admitted client who is in sickle cell crisis requests "something for pain." What does the nurse administer?
Intravenous (IV) hydromorphone (Dilaudid)
The client needs IV pain relief, and it should be administered on a routine schedule (i.e., before the client has to request it).
A distant family member arrives to visit a female client recently diagnosed with leukemia. The family member asks the nurse, "What should I say to her?" Which responses does the nurse suggest? (Select all that apply.)
"Ask her how she is feeling."
"Ask her if she needs anything."
"Talk to her as you normally would when you haven't seen her for a long time."
What are the typical clinical manifestations of anemia? (Select all that apply.)
Dyspnea on exertion
Difficulty breathing—especially with activity—is common with anemia. Lower levels of hemoglobin carry less O2 to the cells of the body. Fatigue is a classic symptom of anemia; lowered O2 levels contribute to a faster pulse (i.e., cardiac rate) and tend to "wear out" a client's energy. Lowered O2 levels deliver less oxygen to all cells, making clients with anemia pale—especially their ears, nail beds, palms, and conjunctivae and around the mouth.
What are the risk factors for the development of leukemia? (Select all that apply.)
Bone marrow hypoplasia
educed production of blood cells in the bone marrow is one of the risk factors for developing leukemia. Exposure to chemicals through medical need or by environmental events can also contribute. Certain genetic factors contribute to the development of leukemia; Down syndrome is one such condition. Radiation therapy for cancer or other exposure to radiation, perhaps through the environment, also contributes.
The nurse is teaching a client with newly diagnosed anemia about conserving energy. What does the nurse tell the client? (Select all that apply.)
"Allow others to perform your care during periods of extreme fatigue."
"Drink small quantities of protein shakes and nutritional supplements daily."
"Provide yourself with four to six small, easy-to-eat meals daily."
"Stop activity when shortness of breath or palpitations are present."
It is critical to have others help the anemic client who is extremely tired. Although it may be difficult for him or her to ask for help, this practice should be stressed to the client. Drinking small protein or nutritional supplements will help rebuild the client's nutritional status. Having four to six small meals daily is preferred over three large meals; this practice conserves the body's expenditure of energy used in digestion and assimilation of nutrients. Stopping activities when strain on the cardiac or respiratory system is noted is critical.
An 82-year-old client with anemia is requested to receive 2 units of whole blood. Which assessment findings cause the nurse to discontinue the transfusion because it is unsafe for the client? (Select all that apply.)
Rapid, bounding pulse
an older adult receiving a transfusion, hypertension is a sign of overload, low blood pressure is a sign of a transfusion reaction, and a rapid and bounding pulse is a sign of fluid overload. In this scenario, 2 units, or about a liter of fluid, could be problematic
What are serious side effects of antiviral agents prescribed for a client with acute myelogenous leukemia? (Select all that apply.)
Antiviral agents, although helpful in combating severe infection, have serious side effects, especially nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity.
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