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Middle East

Mostly dry climate in southwest Asia.


A region that is a flat plain that lies between the Tigris River and the Euphrates River.

Fertile Crescent

Called this because of its shape and the richness of its soil.


A thick bed of mud left after the Tigris and Euphrates rivers flood at least once a year.


The first to settle in the region of the Fertile Crescent because of the rich soil.

Three Disadvantages / Environmental Challenges

1. Unpredictable flooding / dry summer months.
2. No natural barriers for protection - small villages lying in open plain were defenseless
3. Limited natural resources (stone, wood, metal)

Three solutions

1. Irrigation ditches
2. Built city walls with bricks
3. Traded with people around them for the products they lacked.

Nile River

The longest river in Africa

Indian Ocean

The ocean that lies east of Africa.

Mediterranean Sea

Large body of water that separates Africa from Europe.

Red Sea

The sea that lies south of the Sinai Peninsula and is linked to the Indian Ocean.

Taurus Mountains

Chain of mountains located in the southern part of modern Turkey.

Persian Gulf

Body of water that lies between the Arabian Peninsula and modern Iraq.

Tigris River

River that flows southeast across modern Iraq, near the city of Baghdad.

Euphrates River

River located southwest of the Tigris River and flows southeast to the Persian Gulf.

Zagros Mountains

Mountain range located east of the Tigris River, in the southwestern part of Iran.

Sahara Desert

Desert that lies west of the Nile River and covers parts of modern Egypt, Libya, and Sudan.

Nubian Desert

Desert that lies mostly south of Egypt located between the Nile River and the Red Sea.

Sinai Peninsula

Triangular area, bordered by water on three sides, connecting the continents of Africa and Asia.

Dead Sea

Body of water fed by the Jordan River and lies south of the Sea of Galilee.

Jordan River

River that flows through the Sea of Galilee and into the Dead Sea.

Lebanon Mountains

Mountain range that runs parallel to the Mediterranean Sea from Lebanon into Syria.

Negev Desert

Desert located between the Sinai Peninsula and the Dead Sea.

Nile Delta

The northernmost region of the Nile River, which is roughly shaped like a triangle.

Saudi Arabia

Area of land bordered on the northeast by the Persian Gulf, on the southeast by the Indian Ocean, and on the west by the Red Sea.

Syrian Desert

Desert that lies west of the Euphrates River and north of the Arabian Peninsula.

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