CHEM UNIT 5

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Terms in this set (...)

allotropic
describes an element that can exhibit more than one structural form in the same state - solid, liquid, or gas
amorphous
a solid substance whose particles are arranged in a random manner
crystalline
a solid substance whose particles are arranged in orderly, geometric, repeating patterns
fluidity
the ability of a substance to flow
molar enthalpy of fusion
the amount of heat required to change one mole of a solid at its melting point to a liquid
molar enyhalpy of vaporization
the amount of heat energy required to change one mole of a liquid at its boiling point and a constant pressure to a gas
specific heat
the amount of of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one kelvin
surface tension
the strong force of cohesion at the surface of a liquid
visocity
the ability of a fluid to resist flowing
boiling
change of state from a liquid to a gas at or above the boiling point
condensation
change of state from a gas to a liquid
equilibrium
condition in which two opposing changes occur at an equal rate
evaporation
change of state from a liquid to a gas at temperatures and pressures below the boiling point
liquefaction
change of state from a solid to a liquid at or above the melting point
phase diagram
shows the particular state in which a substance will exist at different conditions of temperature and pressure
solidification
change of state from liquid to a solid
sublimation
change of state from a solid to a gas without first becoming a liquid
supercritical fluid
substance that exists at a pressure and temperature higher than its critical point
triple point
temperature and pressure at which a substance can exist in equilibrium in all three states
vaporization
change of state from a liquid to a gas (general term)
boyle's law
an inverse relationship between the volume and pressure of a gas
charles's law
a direct relationship between the volume and the temperature of a gas
gay lussac's law
a direct relationship between the pressure and the temperature of a gas
combined gas law
states that the product of the pressure and volume of a fixed amount of gas varies directly with the same number of particles
avogadro's law
states that equal volumes of gases at the same temperature and pressure contain the same number of particles (V/n = k)
ideal gas law
states that the product of the pressure and volume of a fixed amount of gas is inversely proportional to the product of the number of moles of the gas, the ideal gas constant, and the absolute temperature of the gas
graham's law
states that the rates of diffusion or effusion of two gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure are inversely proportional to the square root of the molar mass of each gas
dalton's law
states that the total pressure of a mixture of unreactive gases is the sum of the partial pressure of each component gas