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38 terms

Chapter 5 vocab

Psychology and You (third edition)
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Motivation
The drive to seek a goal, such as food, water or friends.
Emotion
A state of the body causing feelings, such as of hope, fear, or love.
Hypothalamus
part of the lower brain that controls such basic needs and desires as pleasure, pain, fear, rage, huger, thirst, and sex.
Amygdala
brain structure responsible for emotional responses of aggression and fear.
Reticular Formation
unit in the brain that registers and controls activity level, increases excitement, and helps generate sleep.
Pituitary Gland
Gland that controls other glands and hormones, as well as producing its own hormone that regulates growth.
Adrenal Glands
Glands that secrete adrenaline, which stirs up the body, changing breathing, perspiration, heart rate, and so on.
Gonads
the sex glands.
Testes
the male sex glands; they make sperm.
Ovaries
the female sex glands; they make eggs.
Androgens
male hormones; they control sexual interest in both males and females.
Estrogen
the hormone that controls the female reproductive cycle.
Drives
forces that push an organism into action to reach a goal.
Goal
the target of a set of behaviors.
Homeostasis
bodily process of maintaining a balanced internal state.
Blood Sugar Level
the amount of sugar contained in the blood, which indicates the level of hunger.
Glucose
another name for sugar in the blood.
Set Point
the body-regulating mechanism that determines a person's typical weight.
Curiosity Motive
a drive that moves a person to seek new and different things.
Manipulation Motive
a drive that moves a person to handle and use objects in the environment.
Intrinsic Motivation
motivation that comes from within the individual.
Extrinsic Motivation
motivation that comes from outside the individual.
Contact Comfort
the satisfaction obtained from pleasant, soft physical stimulation.
Hierarchy of Needs
a system that ranks human needs one above the other, with the most basic needs for physical survival at the bottom of the pyramid; proposed by the psychologist Abraham Maslow.
Physiological Needs
Needs at the bottom of Maslow's hierarchy: hunger and thirst.
Safety Needs
needs at the second level of Maslow's hierarchy: shelter, nest egg of money.
Belongingness Needs
needs at the third level of Maslow's hierarchy: friendship, closeness with another.
Self- Esteem Needs
needs at the fourth level of Maslow's hierarchy: liking and respecting yourself, feeling important and useful.
Self Actualization Needs
needs at the top of Maslow's hierarchy: establishing meaningful goals and a purpose in life.
Needs for Affiliation
Psychological need to belong to and identify with groups.
Need for Approval
Psychological need to have other people think highly of oneself.
Need for Achievement
Psychological need for personal accomplishment.
Opponent Process Theory
theory that the presence of one emotion triggers its opposite, which then emerges somewhat later.
Cognition
higher-order thought processes, such as reasoning and problem solving.
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to properly feel, deal with, and recognize emotions.
James Lange Theory
theory of emotion proposing that first the body responds and then one feels the emotion.
Cannon Bard Theory
theory of emotion proposing that the bodily reaction and the emotional response to an event occur at the same time.
Cognitive Theory
theory of emotion proposed by Stanley Schachter; it hold that people label a bodily response by giving it the name of the emotion they think and feel.