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Renaissance Terms

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Medici Family
Ruled Florence during the Renaissance, became wealthy from banking, spent a lot of money on art, controlled Florence for about 3 centuries
Cosmio de Medici
From a 15th century banking family in Florence; ruled from 1434-1464. Was head of the Florentian states as appointed by Charles V and as a great lover of the arts most known for building the famous Uffici museum in Florence.
Machiavelli The Prince
A patriot of Italy, he wrote the most lasting work of the Italian Renaissance, a quintessential political treatise. In it, he wrote of how he dreamed that when citizens of his native Florence, or all of Italy, should behave like early Romans--show virility in their politics, fight in citizen armies for patriotic causes, and uphold their dignity before Europe. He admired the leaders of France, Spain and England because they knew how to exercise poer and how to build strong states. (ends justify means, for rulers it is better to be feared than loved).
Sack of Rome, 1527
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
Charles V
Holy Roman emperor (1519-1558) and king of Spain as Charles I (1516-1556). He summoned the Diet of Worms (1521) and the Council of Trent (1545-1563).
Humanism
the doctrine emphasizing a person's capacity for self-realization through reason
Civic Humanism
the individual is responsible for applying his knowledge for public service
Petrarch
The father of humanism, he wrote that literature should not be subordinate to religion. He studied ancient texts like Cicero, and wrote his poetry in Italian vernacular, which unified the Italian language. He became a symbol of a new type of writer, he didn't use language merely as a practical tool but instead for expression.
Bocaccio The Decameron
A work that portrays an acquisitive, sensual, and worldly society through descriptions of merchants, friars, and husbands in a humorous way.
The Book of Courtier
Castiglione's definition of what Renaissance aristocracy should be; basically, it argued that if the nobles wanted to maintain a high position they must act responsibility and have impeccable character
Virtu
quality of being a great man in whatever noble pursuit
Johann Guttenberg
invented the moveable type printing press in 1445
Quattrocentro
Italian for 15th century
Perspective
the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer
Chiaroscuro
The treatment of light and shade in a work of art, especially to give an illusion of depth.
Brunelleschi
An architect who boldly combined classical and Gothic architecture. He used geometry as the basis for his designs, focusing on spheres and planes. He built the dome on the cathedral in Florence, starting in 1420. He also is given credit for being the first to understand and use perspective, although it was immediately used more clearly in sculpture and painting.
High Renaissance
The time between 1400 and 1500 when the Renaissance was at its peak. This was when cultural values were formed, artistic and literary achievements occurred, and Renaissance style was largely defined.
Leonardo da Vinci
Italian painter, engineer, musician, and scientist. The most versatile genius of the Renaissance, Leonardo filled notebooks with engineering and scientific observations that were in some cases centuries ahead of their time. As a painter Leonardo is best known for The Last Supper (c. 1495) and Mona Lisa (c. 1503).
Raphael The School of Athens
This man created this painting which showed numerous people discussing many ideas and two central characters pointing up and forward respectively to indicat the ideas of focusing on God and focusing on moving forward in life
Michelangelo David, Ceiling of the Sistine Chapel
A statue of David where David is portrayed as a man and looks contemplative. Sistine Chapel painted by Michelangelo between 1508 and 1512, at the commission of Pope Julius II, is one of the most renowned artworks of the High Renaissance.
Northern Renaissance
Emphasized Critical Thinking, Developed Christian Humanism criticizing the church & society, Painting/ Woodcuts/Literature
Christian Humanism
a movement that developed in Northern Europe during the Renaissance combining classical learning (humanism) with the goal of reforming the Catholic Church
Erasmus In Praise of Folly
This man was the most famous northern humanist who wrote this work criticizing the immorality and hypocrisy of the church.
Thomas More Utopia
Civic humanist who rose to a high government position in England. His masterpeice is a description of a utopian society where there is a balance of humanism, religion and property, which he believes causes problems in society (some have it, most don't). He believed that for harmony in society, individuals must be willing to sacrifice rights for the common good.
Isabella d' Este
wealthy female patron of the arts during the Renaissance, also the 1st female to rule a city state.