90 terms

units 9-11 pt 2

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The period following an epileptic seizure is called the ________ period. During this time the animal is conscious and has voluntary movement, but may be lethargic, disoriented, or may exhibit aggression.
post-ictal
Milk fever in cattle and eclampsia in dogs are both due to ________. Cows with milk fever are typically weak and unable to stand up. Dogs with eclampsia often present with generalized seizures.
hypocalcemia
When a patient experiences a series of seizures that occur in a matter of hours, the condition is described as ________.
cluster seizures
GABA and serotonin are both ________ neurotransmitters that reduce the activity of the neurons they act upon.
inhibitory
A medication like alprazolam that is used to reduce anxiety is a(n) ________.
anxiolytic
Acetylcholine receptors in skeletal muscle are ________ receptors.
nicotinic
Stimulation of ________ receptors in the sympathetic nervous system increases heart rate and contractility.
beta 1
The acetylcholine receptors found in the heart and smooth muscle that are responsible for parasympathetic response are ________ receptors.
muscarinic
The common abbreviation for monoamine oxidase inhibitor is ________.
MAOI
The ________ includes the brain and the spinal cord.
CNS
Stimulation of ________ receptors in the sympathetic nervous system inhibits release of norepinephrine from sympathetic neurons.
alpha 2
Stimulation of ________ receptors in the sympathetic nervous system causes bronchodilation, dilation of arteries in skeletal muscle, and inhibition of smooth muscle in the GI tract, bladder and uterus.
beta 2
There are several different causes of seizures. ________ is a disorder of the brain that predisposes the animal to experience seizures on a recurring basis
epilepsy
A ________ is a bundle of axons, transmitting impulses between the CNS and PNS
nerve
The apothecary unit of measurement equal to 64.8mg is 1 ________.
grain
An ________ neuron carries an impulse from the tissues to the CNS..
afferent
Activity of the cardiovascular, respiratory, GI and urinary systems is regulated by the ________ nervous system.
autonomic
The optic n., vagus n., radial n. and sciatic n. are all part of the ________ .
PNS
A few animals exhibit behavior such as restlessness or anxiety for a period of hours prior to a seizure.This type of behavior is described as ________ activity
prodromal
Phenobarbital is available as an ________, a solution of the drug mixed in alcohol.
elixir
An animal having convulsions in which the limbs are extended in a rigid spasm and the head and neck are extend back toward the spine is in an ________ posture.
opisthotonic
The junction between two neurons is called the ________ .
synapse
In addition to it's activity in the sympathetic nervous system, norepinephrine stimulates activity in the CNS and is considered an ________ neurotransmitter.
excitatory
A patient having a seizure that last longer than 5 minutes and shows no signs of stopping is in a state of ________.
status epilepticus
A medication like phenobarbital that is used to control seizures is a(n) ________.
anticonvulsant
An ________ binds to a receptor and stimulates a response.
agonist
The standard abbreviation for selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors is
SSRI
Neurotransmitters are released from axon terminals of the ________ neuron.
pre-synaptic
Abnormal activity of brain cells that results in involuntary muscle activity ranging from twitching to convulsions is a ________ .
seizure
An animal suffering heat stroke may experience seizures due to ________.
hyperthermia
Motor nerves that transmit impulses from the CNS to the skeletal muscles are ________ nerves
efferent
The common abbreviation for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid is ________.
GABA
An ________ binds to a receptor but does not stimulate a response. It can block the receptor so that compounds that would normally stimulate a response are unable to bind to the receptor.
antagonist
A disease or condition that arises spontaneously with no known cause is described as ________
idiopathic
Stimulation of ________ receptors in the sympathetic nervous system increases myocardial contractility and also causes peripheral vasoconstriction, constriction of the urinary sphincter. and mydriasis.
alpha 1
Compounds released from the axon terminals of a neuron into the synaptic cleft that bind to receptors on the target cell are called ________.
neurotransmitters
Both agonists and antagonists bind to ________.
receptors
Sensory and motor nerves connecting the CNS to skeletal muscle, skin and many sensory organs are ________ nerves.
somatic
Toy breed puppies may develop ________ if too many hours pass between feedings. Symptoms include weakness, depression and even seizures.
hypoglycemia
Propofol is classified as a ________ anesthetic because it behaves much like thiamylal and methohexital, even though it is not the same type of chemical compound.
Non-barbiturates
Xylazine and similar sedatives act as ________.
alpha 2 agonists
The brain, heart, lungs, liver and kidneys are described as ________ tissues.
vessel rich
A drug that causes a loss of sensation is a(n) ________ agent.
anesthetic
Some ultra short acting ________ are used as injectable anesthetics, while other drugs in this category are used as anticonvulsants. These agents cause CNS depression by increasing the activity of GABA.
barbiturates
An animal that is given a ________ will be aware of its surrounding, but be calm and quiet.
tranquilizer
If a drug increases the body's response to another drug, it ________ the response to the other drug.
potentiates
A drug that is given to block the effect of a particular sedative or anesthetic agent is a ________ .
reversal agent
An animal that is given a ________ will have CNS depression, but can still be aroused by a strong stimulus
sedative
Ketamine and tiletamine are classified as ________ anestheticis. They do not produce unconsciousness, but induce a cateleptoid state.
dissociative
A drug, like a tranquilizer, that is given before an anesthetic is administered is called a ________.
premedication
Movement of an anesthetic agent out of the CNS and into muscle and fat is called ________.
redistribution
Benzodiazepines are ________ . These drugs are often used as part of an anesthetic protocol because they relieve anxiety and provide mild tranquilizing effect.
anxiolytics
Drugs used to relax skeletal muscle
Muscle Relaxants
Used to induce a temporary skeletal muscle paralysis
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
simulating parasympathetic nervous system
Parasympathomimetics
substance that inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system
Parasympatholytics
simulating sympathetic nervous system
Sympathomimetics
substance that inhibits the sympathetic nervous system
Sympatholytics
a substance that blocks the activity of the enzyme cholinesterase, increasing the concentration of acetylcholine in the body
Anticholinesterases
simulating sympathetic nervous system/working on adrenaline or noradrenaline
Sympathomimetics/Adrenergics
simulating parasympathetic nervous system/relating to or denoting nerve cells in which acetylcholine acts as a neurotransmitter
Parasympathomimetics/Cholinergics
substance that inhibits the parasympathetic nervous system/Opposing the actions of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine
Parasympatholytics/Anticholinergics
Parasympathetic nerves are also called
Craniosacral nerves
Sympathetic nerves are also called
Thoracolumbar nerves
drug that causes a loss of sensation; may be local or general. General anesthetics cause loss of consciousness
Anesthetic-
drug that induces minimal CNS depression, patient remains aware of surroundings, but is calm, little anxiety
Tranquilizer-
similar to tranquilizers, especially at doses and for typical uses in veterinary medicine
Anxiolytic-
Drugs used to relax skeletal muscle
Muscle Relaxants
Used to induce a temporary skeletal muscle paralysis
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
What is the Alpha 2 agonist reversing agent for Dexmedetomidine
atipamezole
What is the Alpha 2 agonist reversing agent for Xylazine
Yohimbine
drug that induces a state of CNS depression; patient is minimally aware of surrounding, but can be aroused by noxious stimulus
Sedative-
How can Acepromazine be administered
SC, IM, IV, po
What does Acepromazine do?
Calms patient, relieves anxiety, smoothes induction

Usually given as a pre-medication prior to administration of other anesthetic agents
How are Benzodiazepines administered?
Administer IM or IV
What can benzodiazepine be mixed with?
do not mix in syringe with anything except Ketamine
Zolazepam is only found in combination with
Tiletamine
How are alpha 2 agonist administered?
IM or IV
T/F: Alpha 2 agonist are reversible.
True
What are alpha 2 agonist doses based on? Weight or body surface area?
Dose based on body surface area- used chart from manufacturer
How should alpha 2 agonist reversal agonist be administered?
Give reversal agent IM, even if you gave sedative IV
How are barbiturates administered?
always given IV
How are Non-barbiturates administered?
always given IV
How are dissociatives administered?
given IV or IM
Telazol is the combination of which drugs?
Tiletamine and zolazepam
How are barbiturates classified?
Classified based on duration of action
what are the ultra-short acting barbiturates?
Thiopental, Thiamylal, Methohexital
What is the short acting barbiturate?
Pentobarbital
What are the long acting barbiturates?
Phenobarbital
when level of drug in bloodstream drops below level in brain, drug leaves brain and is transported to other body tissues, distributed in muscle and fat
Redistribution-