Ento. 115 Unit 3 test
Terms in this set (58)
Is the skeleton of an insect internal or external?
How many tagmata (body regions) does an insect have? What are they called?
3- head, thorax, abdomen
What is the head specialized for?
specialized for sensory perception, food gathering, manipulation, and ingestion
What is the primary function of antennae?
Ommatidia are part of what structure?
How are compound eyes different from Ocelli?
-compound eyes are formed of many ommatidia, and form images
-ocelli have a single lens and they are light sensitive.
What is the primary function of the thorax? What structures are present?
-locomotion is primary function
-legs and wings present
What are tegmina, elytra, hemelytra?
-Tegmina: leathery front wing of insects such as grasshoppers and earwigs
-Elytra:hardened front wing of insects such are beetles
-Hemelytra: modified forewings that are thick at the base, and membranous at the tips. Found on true bugs
What order of insects has halteres and what is their function
On Diptera. A pair of club-shaped organs that are a modified pair of wings. Function as flight stabilizers.
What are the primary functions of the abdomen
What is growth?
The process of increasing in size
What type of growth occurs?
Observable growth by insects is limited by what
By the exoskeleton, overcome this by molting
What is metamorphosis
metamorphosis - change in form
What orders have nymphs, which ones have larvae
What are the functions of the exoskeleton
• Protect soft parts
• Muscular attachment
• Site for sense organs
•Concealing colors and shapes
• Helps prevent water movement
Components (layers) and functions of the exoskeleton and each layer
• skeleton part of the exoskeleton
• Key contributor to success - barrier living tissue/environment - restriction of water loss
cuticle has 3 sublayers
• Outer most layer, at surface
• thin and unpigmented
• functions - very resistant to abrasions - waterproofing
• middle layer
• sclerotized layer
• function -provides rigidity & strength
• inner layer
• soft and flexible
• function - provides structure
- living part of exoskeleton (cellular)
- secretes cuticle: major function
- serves as a backing and separates the hemocoel (insect's main body cavity) from the integument.
What are hormones?
Chemicalformed in one organ or part of the body that is carried in the blood to another organ or part where it exerts functional effects
• Produced by endocrine system
What signals that its time to molt
- Time to molt: brain hormone ecdysone
- What to molt into: (metamorphosis) juvenile hormone
- Basic function: to prepare nutrients for transport to individual cells of the body (ingestion, digestion, absorption, egestion)
- 3 basic regions: foregut, midgut, hindgut
- Functions: used for storage and grinding food, initiates digestion (salivary glands), guides food into the midgut
- Components: Salivary glands, Crop (stores food), Proventriculus (grinds food), Valve to midgut
- functions: secrete digestive enzymes, digest the food, absorb food into blood stream
- valves allow entry in and out Cardiac Pyloric
Functions: permits indigestible material to pass out of digestive system, absorbs water and salts from waste
- Basic functions: maintain environment, suitable for survival, eliminate waste, regulation of salts and water
- Important - because waste is poisonous to cells
- Join digestive tract where midgut and hindgut merge
- analogous to kidneys, hollow tubes, may have 2-200
- Remove metabolic waste from blood and deposit in the rectum
- open circulatory system
- basic function: facilitate the exchange of materials between cells, tissues, and organs
- transport nutrients, waste products, hormones
- protection, defense capacity
components of circulatory system
- Hemocoel: open body cavity
- Dorsal blood vessel: Partially closed portion of the circulatory (aorta and heart)
- System Ostia: openings in dorsal blood vessel
- Tracheal respiratory system (breathing apparatus of most insects, some through exoskeleton)
- Basic function: movement of oxygen to cells, removal of carbon dioxide
Components of Respiratory System
- spiracles: opening on each side of abdomen, open for gaseous exchange, close to prevent desiccation
- Basic Functions: receive stimuli from environment, integrate sensory data, response to stimuli
- Two major components: brain, ventral nerve cord
- Ventral nerve cord composed of a series of ganglia (bundles of nerve masses)
What are nerves?
Nerves are specialized cells that carry messages from one part of the body to another, as tiny electrical signals. These messages are also known as nerve impulses.
What kind of eyes do insects have?
- What are antennae used for?
Used for touch, smell, air movement, vibrations, body heat and other cues
Sensilla are sense organs located on the cuticle, usually in the form of a hair, rod, cone, or peg. They are comprised of one or a few cells and have a nerve connection. Once stimulated, they transmit information to central nervous system
What is needed for an organism to survive?
Water, food, habitat (breeding habitat)
What is biology
the science of life with reference to origin, growth, reproduction, structure, and behavior
What is ecology
study of the interrelationships between and among organisms and their living and non-living environment
group of organisms (of the same species) occupying a particular space at a particular time
groups of different populations living together in a particular place (includes plants)
any area of nature that includes living organisms and non-living substances interacting to produce an exchange of materials between the living and non-living components
A place in the habitat where a species hangs out...its place in nature
Producers: primarily plants Food Chains Consumers: animals and others which feed on producers or wastes
- Most insects have innate behaviors
- Genetically programmed
- Individuals inherit many behaviors just as they inherit physical traits
- Small brain
- Short life span
- Have to hit the ground running
- Defined as a persistent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience.
- Acquire new skills and knowledge through trial and error, observation of other individuals, or memory of past events.
EX: remembering things by using a landmark
Is communication always between the same species?
Communication is generally considered to take place between members of the same species, not always
What are the functions of communication?
-recruitment (e.g., to food or nest sites)
-recognition (nest mates, castes, injured)
-exchange of foods
How do insects communicate?
- Smell: antennae have sensory sensilla that pick up odors
- Vision: very important for some insects
- Taste: receptors on antennae, labial palps, tarsi, ovipositor
- Sound: sensilla, membranes
- Vibration: substrate
What are pheromones?
A substance/chemical secreted by one animal that causes a specific reaction upon reception by another animal of the same species
Reasons insects use pheromones
To get other insects to the correct spot they want them to go
How do honey bees communicate?
They dance- communicates the distance and direction of the food source