99 terms

Pony Club C Level

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Where would you most likely find "hooks" on a horse's teeth?
Upper and lower molars.
How many of each type of teeth does a horse have?
12 Incisors, 24 Premolars, 4 Canine teeth, and 1 to 4 Wolf teeth.
What term is used to describe a horse with hocks that point towards each other and cannon bones that slant outward?
Cow hocks.
What is it called when a horse hits a front hoof with the toe of the hind foot on the same side, usually at the trot?
Forging.
Name two unsoundnesses which are found ONLY in the horse's hind legs.
Curbs, bone spavins, bog spavins or thoroughpins.
Base narrow in the front may cause what gait fault?
Plaiting.
Small feet and upright patterns may make your pony more likely to develops what condition as he gets older?
Navicular disease.
Overreaching and forging are often associated with what conformation type?
Very short back with long legs or the hind legs are sickle hocked or camped under.
Which type of body clip removes the least amount of hair?
A strip clip.
Sally clipped her pony's mane with good sharp scissors, so it is even and the right Length. Was this right, and if not, what should she have done instead?
She was not right. She should have pulled her pony's mane with a pulling comb.
What is the name of the process of getting a horse fit, gradually developing muscle and lung capacity?
Conditioning.
What tools does a farrier use to pry off the old shoe?
Punchers or shoe pullers.
What does a farrier use the NIPPERS for?
Trimming off the excess hoof wall.
What is a FULLER?
The groove of crease in a shoe where the nail holes are set.
A shipping bandage must cover and protect what parts of the horse's body?
The heels, coronary band, pattern, fetlock joint, and tendons, to the base of the knee or hock.
How often should a stable bandage be removed and reset?
Every 12 hours
What is the name for a hard lump on the front of the pastern, just above the coronary band?
Ringbone
A CURB is an injury to what part of a horse?
The hock
Your pony doesn't want to put any weight on her front feet and her hooves are hot. What is most likely wrong?
Laminitis
SPAVINS would be found where on a horse?
The hocks
Where would SIDEBONE be found on a horse?
The collateral cartilages of the coffin bone
What disease can a horse get if organisms in the soil work their way into a puncture wound?
Tetanus
Name several diseases that mosquitoes transmit to horses.
Easter, Western, and Venezuelan Equine Encephalomyelitis, West Nile Virus, and Equine Infectious Anemia.
A Coggins Test detects antibodies that are formed when a horse has what disease?
Equine Infectious Anemia
What causes Tetanus?
Clostridium tetani, a bacterium found in the soil and manure.
What is HEAVES and what are other names for it?
Recurrent Airway Obstruction; a breathing problem that is a type of allergic reaction to dust or mold.
List the diseases that horses are most commonly vaccinated for every year.
Tetanus, Equine Encephalomyelitis (Eastern, Western, and Venezuelan), West Nile Virus, Rabies, and any other vaccines your veterinarian recommends.
SCRATCHES, RINGWORM, and RAINROT, are all examples of
Skin Diseases
List some examples of different types of colic pain.
Gas, spasms or cramps, irritations of the bowel, excessive fullness off the stomach or intestines, obstruction (blockage), of the bowel, or trusted intestine.
List the most common and preventable causes of colic in horses.
Overeating, feeding excessive amounts of grain in the diet, spoiled or unsuitable feed, sudden change in diet, working a horse hard right after he has eaten, swallowing sand along with feed, and damage to the intestines cause by worms.
You suspect your horse has colic and have called a vet. What should you do while you are waiting for the vet to arrive?
Take his vital signs, note the color of his gums, and write both down. Walk the horse and record his vital signs every 15 minutes. Allow him to stand if he will do so quietly. Do not let him lie down. If he passes gas and manure, he can be put in his stall but continue to check on him until the vet arrives. Do not give food or medication unless your vet tells you to do so.
What is another name for LARGE STRONGYLES ?
Blood worms
_______ lay small, sticky, yellow eggs on a horse's legs, belly, and flanks in the fall.
Bot flies
What type of internal parasite might your pony have if he rubs his tail?
Pinworms
List the main varieties of legume hay.
Alfalfa, clover, and Lucerne.
Hay is a type of _______ made of dried grass and plants. Grains are _______ which means they have more nutrients packed into a smaller amount than bulk foods like hay.
Roughage; concentrates.
Feed should be measured in ______, not by flakes or scoops.
Pounds
What is a good rule of thumb to follow when deciding how much to feed your horse?
2 to 3 pounds of feed for every 100 pounds he weighs.
Which grain is considered the safest to feed because it is the hardest to oversees?
Oats
What must you be sure to do first before you feed sugar beet pulp to your horse?
Soak it in water
______ is the most essential part of your horse's diet.
Water
List the three different forms that oats can be fed in.
Whole, crimped, or rolled.
Which strap(s) should you fasten first one you put a blankets on a horse?
The chest straps
List ways you could prepare your horse for travel.
Put on shipping bandages or boots, tail protection, head bumper, fly mask, breakaway halter, and apply a blanket or sheet.
What equipment and what attire is required for the handler to safely longe a horse?
Attire: gloves, a helmet, hard soled boots that cover the ankle, and a watch.

Equipment: longe line, longe whip, longe cavesson or snaffle bridle, protective boots or bandages, a saddle or surcingle, and side reins.
If you are longeing a horse to the left as you look at him, describe how you hold the longe line and whip.
The left hand holds the lead with the remainder in the right hand which also holds the whip. Never coil the longe line around your hand.
Describe the difference between an opening or leading rein and a direct rein when lunging.
Opening or leading rein: longe hand moves outward and sideways, away from your body, this leads the horse forward and asks him to stretch his neck out.

Direct rein: the longe hand gives short squeezes on the rein toward our elbow. This asks the horse to make the circle smaller. To bend toward you, or to stop pulling out away from you.
Describe two ways to effectively ask the horse to move forward on the longe line using the whip.
Close to the ground with a forward rotating motion or flipped at the hocks (from back to front).
If you longe a horse with a snaffle bridal only (no longeing cavesson), explain how the longe line/ rein should be arranged.
Either through the snaffle ring, around the noseband and clipped back on itself or through the snaffle ring, over the horse's poll and fastened to the snaffle ring on the opposite side.
List the main reasons why you might wear spurs while riding.
To remind the horse to pay attention to your leg aids.
Opening, direct, bearing, and indirect are all types of _______
Basic rein aids
List several reasons why you would use a half halt when riding.
To prepare for a transition, to improve the horse's balance, to shorten the stride, or to keep your horse's attention.
Describe a horse that has "free forward movement".
The horse is willing to move forward easily from light leg aid and he uses his body well when he moves.
When describing a horse's way of going, what is rhythm?
The beats or pattern of a gait.
What single word is generally used to describe the energy of a horse's movement?
Impulsion
What would you do to correct your horse if she swerved to the right during gymnastic jumping on a grid?
Take your left hand off her neck and hold it to the side in an opening rein aid.
You're a horse should learn to step sideways with his hind legs when you ask him to. This skill or signal can be taught while __________
You are on the ground.
________ contact means you have a light, steady feel of your horse's mouth through the reins all the time.
Light
Describe the Stirrup Length you should use when galloping in a good, balance position.
Your stirrups should be in cross country length (stirrups at the top of your ankle bones)
In riding through corners, your horse tends to fall out on his outside shoulder. What should you use to correct this?
Besides using an active inside leg, the outside leg should slide back a little to keep the horse's hind legs following in the tracks of the front legs.
Describe the proper riding position when jumping down hill.
Set up deep and tall, use your hands and legs and especially your balance to keep your horse straight.
What type of release is the same as jumping on contact or jumping out of hand?
The automatic release
Describe the correct way to jump over a ditch.
Approach it in a study trot or canter, keeping your seat in the saddle and your eyes on a target beyond the ditch. Close your legs firmly to keep your horse moving forward and remember to fold and release as he jumps.
What is the most difficult type of spread fence to jump?
A parallel Oxer
Name two different types of spread jumps and give one example of each.
Ascending spreads (staircase fences): triple bar or ascending oxer.

Parallel spreads: square oxer.
If all the jumps are the same height, which type (shape) fence would be easiest for most horses to jump?
Any type of ascending spread
What is the best kind of fence to use in gymnastic breads of multiple bounces? (Non stride grid)
Cross rails
Describe how you would teach a group of D 2's to walk through a shallow ditch.
Keep your eyes up and stay in balance with your horse. Keep your horse straight and under control as you ride down the bank. At the bottom, sink your heels down and hold the main or neck strap in case he jumps. Stay in a half seat as he climbs up the far bank.
How does jumping grids without stirrups help your riding?
It strengthens your legs, improves your balance, and makes you more secure over fences.
What is a good distance for a TWO STRIDE combination for a HORSE? For a SMALL PONY?
Horse: 34' to 36'

Small pony: 29' to 30'
What is the name of a spread fence where the rails on the front and back standards are the same height?
Square oxer
Describe an "ascending oxer" jump.
A spread jump that slants up and away from the take off side, like steps.
Which types of jumps should only be jumped from one direction and why? What should always be used on the back rail of these jumps?
Oxers, triple bars, and parallel fences; jumping them the wrong way provides a false ground line which is dangerous. The back rail should always have safety or break away cups that are designed to release if they are struck.
Under what terrain conditions should you slow your horses down while riding in the open?
Mud, bogs,, water, snow, rocky ground, hard ground, deep grass, pavement, and road surfaces.
What three bits are the most commonly used in pony club?
Snaffle, Kimberwicke, and Pelham bits.
What other names does a three ring gag snaffle go by?
American gag, dutch gag, continental, elevator, or Pessoa gag.
This piece of leather is designed to hold the full cheek still in the horses mouth and concentrates the pressure on the bars and tongue, what is this called?
Bit keepers
Name several types of leg protection (not including bandages)
Splint boots, open front boots, fetlock or ankle boots, support or sports medicine boots, and Bell or overreach boots.
This type of tack is designed too keep a horse from raising his head to high above the angle of control. What is it?
A Martingale
What is the difference between a martingale and a breastplate?
Martingale's are designed to keep the horse from raising his head above the angle of control. Breastplates are designed to keep the saddle secure without restricting the horse's movement.
If Susie Q's reins are not safe (stitching coming undone....) , do you fix the problem your self or do you seek the help of the supervising adult?
She should seek the help of the supervising adult and explain what the problem is and why it could be a hazard to the rider on out.
If traveling by air, what are two things you should send with your pony?
A bale of hay and a 5 gallon bucket with water from home.
Define "pricking" in reference to shoeing.
Accidentally driving a nail into the sensitive part of the foot.
What type of wrap does Pony Club NOT allow as an outer bandage for standing or shipping wraps?
Polo wraps
In the horse's body, what attaches muscle to bone and bone to bone?
Muscle to bone; tendons

Bone to bone; ligaments
Muscles and tendons that bend or flex a joint are called ________. Those that extend or straighten a joint are called _________.
Flexors; extensors
Where is the horse's center of gravity?
Close to his heart girth line.
What are the two sizes of dressage arena in meters (small vs large)?
Small: 20m x 40m

Large: 20m x 60m
Starting at A, name the letters of the small Dressage arena.
A, K, E, H, C, M, B, F.
Define a rider's base of support.
The parts of your body and legs that support you when you ride. In full seat, this is your seat, inner thighs, inner knees, and upper inner calves. In a jumping seat, it is your lower part of the inner thighs, inner knees, and upper inner calves. The lower legs and stirrups also play a part in the jumping seat.
What is the average jumping stride for a horse? For a medium pony?
Horse: 12'

Medium pony: 10'6"
The horse you're riding is running off with you. Give two examples of ways to safely slow him/her down.
You can turn your horse in a large circle and gradually make the circle smaller until he comes back under control. Be careful not to turn to sharply downhill or on slippery ground. You can also use a pulley rain upward several times to get your horse's attention.
List some examples of different types of betting suitable for horses.
Straw, shavings, sawdust, shredded paper, pelleted better, peanut hulls, Coco been hulls, pine straw, sand or dirt, and rubber stall mats.
I am a vine with purple flowers and green and dark red berries. I grow in fence rows, hedges and pastures. I can cause colic, lack of coordination and weakness, along with many other symptoms. What toxic plant am I?
Black Nightshade or Horse Nettle
I am a fern like plant that grows in low, wet areas, up to 10 feet tall with white flowers, leaves like carrots a stalks with purple spots. I can cause respiratory failure. What toxic plant am I?
Poison Hemlock or Water Hemlock
I come from a tree that grows up to 120 feet tall with scaly bark and compound alternate leaves. Shavings from me should never be used as bedding as they are highly toxic. What toxic plant am I?
Black walnut
List several types of stirrup irons that you are allowed to use in Pony Club.
Peacock safety stirrups, bent stirrups, Ridge stirrups flexible stirrups, and breakaway stirrups.
What is the periople?
The shiny natural covering of the hoof.
List several pieces of safety equipment that every barn should have available.
Fire extinguishers, no smoking signs, a faucet and hose outside and inside the barn, halters and lead ropes on every stall, light bulbs with explosion proof glass cages.