ABeka Chemistry - 12 (Chapters 1-18) FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (74)
______ ______ provides evidence that a chemical change has occurred in a substance.
formation of a gas, production of heat, and a distinct change in color
An atom of a particular element is distinguished from atoms of other elements by the number of ____ in the nucleus.
The reaction of HNO₃(aq) + NaOH(aq) →H₂O(l) + NaNO₃(aq) is an example of a ____ reaction.
The 2nd law of thermodynamics states that _____.
Write it in here:
The position and momentum of small particles such as electrons cannot be precisely measured simultaneously is the ____ principle.
Elements with the largest-sized atoms are located in the ____ region of the periodic table.
More compounds are formed from the element ____ than from all other elements combined.
List physical properties are characteristic of metals:
malleable, ductile, conducts electricity
List ways to hasten the dissolution of a solid solute in water:
stirring, crushing or grinding, and increasing the temperature
A mixture containing tiny clumps or particles that remain suspended within the mixture and do not settle out over time is called a ______.
As a rule of thumb, the rate of a given chemical reaction doubles when the temperature is increased by ____.
10 degrees Celsius
In a reversible chemical reaction represented A + B ⇌ AB, adding more of substance A to the system would shift the equilibrium toward the ____.
Two or more forms of the same element that differ in their properties but exist in the same physical state:
Sodium or potassium salts of fatty acids:
Compounds with the same molecular formula but different arrangments of atoms:
Substituted hydrocarbons containing one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH)
Biological polymers composed of long chains of glucose molecules
Hydrocarbons characterized by one or more triple covalent bonds between carbon atoms:
Rubbery polymers made from silicon-oxygen chains rather than carbon chains
Protein catalysts found in living things
Ionic compounds composed of any cation except H⁺ and any anion except OH⁻
Hydrocarbons consisting of cyclic rings containing delocalized electrons
Alkanes and other organic compounds consisting of only hydrogen and carbon
A distance of 3.2 kilometers is equal to __ meters.
Individual packets or quanta of light are called ____.
The outermost electrons in an atom, which are involved in chemical bonding are are referred to as an atom's ___ metals.
The elements lithium, sodium, potassium, and cesium belong to the group of elements known as the ___ metals.
The elements helium, argon, and xenon belong to the group of elements known as the ___.
The most abundant element in the universe is ____.
Ozone is one form of the element _____.
The precious metal, more expensive than gold, that is commonly used in industrial and automotive catalysts is ____
The atomic mass refers specifically to
the average mass of all the various isotopes of an element compared to the mass of a carbon -12 atom
A chemical bond characterized by the sharing of one or more electron pairs between two atoms in a molecule is called a ___.
The strong intermolecular force responsible for the unexpectedly high boiling points of water, ammonia, and hydrogen fluoride is the ____.
The semi-conductor most commonly used to make computer chips is ____.
The concentration of a solution in terms of moles per liter of solution is known as its ___
If a strip of blue litmus paper turns red when dipped into a solution, the pH of that solution must be ___.
less than 7
Nuclear radiation that consists of high-speed electrons is called ____ radiation.
The amount of fissionable material at a given density required to sustain a chain reaction is known as the _________.
A nuclear reaction in which a single large nucleus splits into two smaller nuclei would be called ____.
The force exerted by gravity upon an object is called ___.
Chemical reactions and physical changes which release heat energy to their surroundings are known as ________ processes
Kinetic energy is energy associated with an object's ___________
An atom with the electron configuration 1s²2s²2p⁶3s²3p⁴ has a total of 11 electrons orbiting the nucleus
Electrons that circulate freely through a molecule instead of being bound to a single atom or pair of atoms are said to be ____.
A substance that produces hydroxide ions when dissolved in water in classified as a _______.
Whenever an atom undergoing a chemical reaction gains electrons, it is said to undergo ___.
The process of oxidation in an electrochemical cell always occurs at the ____.
A substance that dissociates or ionizes in water to produce ions which can conduct an electric current is called an __________________.
A list of metals arranged by their relative ease of oxidations is called an _____ series.
The shorter the half-life of a radioactive substance, the _______ its activyt.
The study of the chemistry of living things is called ___.
The minimum kinetic energy that a molecule must possess to undergo a chemical reaction is called the _____.
A reaction that can be made to go either direction, from reactants to products or from products to reactants, is called a ____ reaction
If the forward and reverse reactions of a reversible chemical reaction are proceeding at the same rate, then the system is said to be in a state of chemical ____.
The study of chemical compounds containing carbon is called __ chemistry.
The reactions of alkanes and other hydrocarbons with oxygen to produce CO₂, H₂O, and heart is called ____.
The complex mixture of liquid hydrocarbons found in the earth's crust is called ___
petroleum or crude oil
Plastics and other materials made from many small molecules that have been linked together to form much larger molecules are called ____.
Citric, acetic acid, and vitamin C (ascorbic acid) are examples of ___.
Hydrocarbons containing one of more double covalent bonds usually have names ending in the suffix ____.
A hydrocarbon name "2-butene" contains ____ carbon atoms.
Which is the functional group of aldehydes:
When a carboxylic acid reacts with an alcohol, an ___ is formed.
Compounds that contain the functional group -N- and can be thought of as derived from ammonia are called _____.
Nylon is another name for a group of polymers called ____>
Protein molecules consists of long chains of smaller molecules called _____.
An important 6-carbon sugar found in both animals and plants is ____.
A triglyceride is an example of a __ molecule
In which common state of matter do molecules possess the least amount of kinetic energy?
Calculate the molar mass of carbon tetrafluoride (CF₄) in grams, founded to proper sig figs if C=12.01 and F= 19.00 u.
Write the formula for phosphorus trichloride.
Write the name for MgSO₄
Name three ways to increase the rate of a given chemical reaction:
increase temp, increase concentration of reactants, catalyst