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History Exam 3
Terms in this set (190)
Drag the statements that describe the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints to the image of the temple below.
-The church was democratic
and allowed anyone—
to become members.
-The religion was founded
by Joseph Smith
-polygamy prove controversial and demonstrated limits of religious toleration in the country
Identify the contributions of John Deere and Cyrus McCormick to the expansion of the market economy in the United States.
The both invented equipment that increased farm production
Today, text messaging offers instant communication. In the 1830s Americans marveled at the ability of an invention to transmit messages across the country. What new technology allowed for instant connectivity?
What does this image reveal about the mid-nineteenth-century belief in "inborn" qualities of men and women?
Men:expected to be rational, aggressive, and domineering
able to move freely between the public and private spheres
Women:remained in the private realm of the family
nurturing, selfless, ruled by emotion
T or F, The steamboat made upstream commerce possible as it allowed goods to be moved swiftly against the current on rivers.
The development of factories changed the production of goods and the use of human labor. Identify the statements that describe how the market revolution changed society and the ways people worked.
-Pay was based on an hourly or daily rate.
-People started arranging their day by the clock, and there was a clear delineation between work time and free time.
-Instead of a focus on individual craftsmanship, people worked together to assemble a finished product.
Identify the statements that describe the Second Great Awakening and its impact.
-It democratized American Christianity, making it a mass enterprise.
-Preachers stressed that individuals were "free agents" able to make their own choices, and stressed industry, sobriety, and self-discipline.
-Alarmed by low church attendance, religious leaders organized religious revivals where they preached, warning of hell and promising salvation to converts.
roads and canals in 1840?
-Large portions of the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio Rivers could be navigated, allowing trade throughout the most western states.
-Ohio, New York, and Pennsylvania had a series of canals that allowed goods to be transported throughout the region.
-By 1840, a network of roads connected the Atlantic coast to the western states, including Indiana and Missouri.
Identify the statements that describe westward expansion.
-Westward expansion had been happening since the first settlers arrived and moved inland.
-The West emerged as its own distinct region, with its own culture, different from the South and New England.
-By supporting the West, politicians gained power.
Identify the statements that describe the internal borderland along the Ohio River.
-There was more trade between people across the Ohio River than in the most northern parts of their own states.
-It was the boundary between free and slavery societies.
-Cultural connections, trade connections, and family connections transcended the border.
Identify the demands of the early labor movement.
-the limit of working hours to ten hours a day
-the end of imprisonment because of debts owed
-the opportunity for free public education
What role did freedom play in the concept of "manifest destiny"?
America was entitled to the whole continent because of its divine mission to spread freedom beyond its current borders
Identify the statements that describe how textile mills transformed employment dynamics in the nineteenth century.
-Entire families worked at some mills, with women and children contributing to the production of textiles.
-It was the first time in history that a large number of unmarried women left their homes to participate in the public world.
Identify the statement that describes the shift from the ideology of "republican motherhood" to the cult of domesticity in the mid-nineteenth century.
The idealized image of a woman shifted from that of a mother of future citizens to that of a virtuous and obedient person dependent on her husband
Identify why the following immigrant groups came to America in the nineteenth century.
Germans: They were skilled craftsmen seeking to take advantage of economic opportunities and to establish themselves as shopkeepers or farmers.
English: Their country's movement for democracy failed and industry continued to expand unchecked.
Irish: They were fleeing the Great Famine which destroyed the potato crop that sustained the country.
During the nineteenth century, legal decisions supported entrepreneurs participating in the market revolution by striking down monopolies and encouraging competition.
Identify the statements that describe the experiences of free blacks in the nineteenth century.
-Blacks faced widespread discrimination and were unable to find work as craftsmen or store clerks.
-Blacks constructed their own institutional life, by creating schools and churches.
What does it reveal about the contrast between how America viewed the West, and the reality of the West?
While Americans romanticized the West as a land of opportunity and promise, in reality it was a rough and difficult place to live
Identify the statement that describes the concept of a "family wage."
the amount a man should be able to make to support his wife and children without their earnings
Identify the statements that describe the life and career of Andrew Jackson.
Jackson was suspicious of banks and paper money and feared that the market revolution was a source of moral decay.
Identify the statements that were given to justify the disenfranchisement of women.
-Women were too prone to be swayed by passion.
-Women were too "pure" to be "contaminated" by politics.
Identify the causes of the economic Panic of 1819.
Demand for western lands plummeted, bankrupting many speculators.
European demand for American farm goods returned to pre-War of 1812 levels.
Identify the candidates for the presidency in the election of 1824.
Based on your understanding of the Bank War, what does this political cartoon reveal about the conflict?
Nicholas Biddle, the president of the Second Bank of the United States, is represented with the head of a demon and shown running from an all-powerful Andrew Jackson holding the order to remove federal funds from the bank.
In McCulloch v. Maryland, Marshall declared the Second Bank of the United States a legitimate exercise of congressional authority. What was his argument to legitimize the bank?
Because the legislation in this case promoted "the general welfare," it was legitimate as "all means which are ... not prohibited ... are constitutional."
The bank was legitimate due to the Constitution's clause that allowed Congress to pass "necessary and proper" laws.
What does it reveal about the presidential election of 1824? Match the candidates to their outcomes in the election.
Jackson: won the largest portion of the popular vote and the electoral
Adams:performed strongest in the Northeastern states, including New York, Massachusetts, and Maine
Clay: won a larger portion of the popular vote than William H. Crawford, but received fewer electoral votes
Identify the statements that illustrate the complex relationship between race and voting.
New York removed property qualifications for white voters but raised the requirement for blacks to $250.
North Carolina did not disenfranchise its free black community until 1835.
Identify the following individuals and key terms.
nullification crisis: represented a conflict between the federal government and South Carolina that eventually led to well-developed political philosophy
Force Act: passed by Congress to enforce the federal tariff of 1832
Exposition and Protest: justified South Carolina's arguments for nullification by drawing on the Virginia and Kentucky resolutions of 1798.
Tariff of abominations: raised taxes on imported manufactured goods made of wool, as well as raw materials such as iron
Jackson's Democrats were firm believers in using the power of the government to legislate a unified moral vision on society, especially "temperance" laws that restricted alcohol use and production.
Identify the statement that describes the relationship between property and voting rights in America.
By 1860 in all but one state, land ownership was not a requirement to vote.
Identify the statements that describe William Henry Harrison, the 1840 Whig candidate for president.
Harrison's key accomplishment, like Jackson's, was his military success against the British in the War of 1812.
Harrison did not have an actual political platform.
Harrison's running mate was John Tyler, former Democrat from Virginia.
Identify the contributions or opinions of the following individuals.
Thomas Jefferson: viewed the entire Missouri controversy as an attempt by Federalists to revive their party by setting northern and southern Republicans against each other
John Quincey Adams:thought that the Missouri controversy had revealed how the issue of slavery could eventually result in civil war
John Adams: persuaded many northerners that the South had too much influence in Washington; the only non-Virginian among the first five presidents of the United States
Whigs believed that liberty and power were incompatible and that an activist government was to be avoided at all costs as a grave threat to liberty.
As a result of the Dorr War, property qualifications for voting were eliminated for native-born black and white men.
Identify the statements that describe President Andrew Jackson.
Jackson was accused by his critics of being a tyrant acting above the law and they used the title "King" as a term of derision.
The "Whig Party" was the name given to the political party created in opposition to Jackson.
The market revolution and political democracy produced a large expansion of the public sphere and an explosion in printing called the "information revolution." Identify the outcomes of the following developments and innovations.
New York Sun and New York Herald: introduced a new style of journalism that appealed to mass audience by emphasizing sensationalism, crime stories, and exposés of official misconduct
Steam power: allowed for greater output and the rise of the mass-circulation "penny-press"
Low Postal rates: enabled many newspapers to expand their circulation far beyond their places of publication
Even though John Tyler was a Whig, Whig newspapers quickly started referring to him as "His Accidency" and "The Executive Ass." Why was Tyler so disliked by members of his own party?
Tyler vetoed the creation of a new national bank.
Tyler vetoed a higher tariff.
North American slave culture drew very little on African heritage. This was due to the fact that so many American slaves were American born and heavily influenced by white Christianity, political beliefs, and music.
The amount of revenue generated by slavery for the South and the rest of the country made it extremely difficult to abolish the peculiar institution in a region where cotton was king. These profits were a powerful obstacle to abolition.
Compared to slaves in Brazil or the West Indies, American slaves had ___ diets. This was because the South had abundant food supplies and wild game. The slaves supplemented the food provided by their masters by ____ in the forest and cultivating ____ themselves
Identify the escapes or contributions to escapes made by the following individuals.
-Henry Brown: He packed himself into a crate and had it shipped from Richmond to Philadelphia.
-Harriet Tubman: She was the best known "conductor" on the Underground Railroad. It is estimated that she saved seventy-five men, women, and children from slavery.
-William and Ellen Craft: She impersonated a sickly owner traveling with her slave.
In the South it was illegal under any circumstances, even self-defense, for a slave to kill a white person.
Identify the statements that describe Frederick Douglass's critique of slavery.
-Douglass says that slaves are the truest Americans in that all they want is liberty.
-Douglass relates slavery to American values in order to question a society that does not practice its commitment to liberty for all people by enslaving black people.
Slaves developed a distinct version of Christianity that offered solace in the face of hardship and hope for liberation from bondage. Identify the statements that describe the religious life of slaves.
-Although it was illegal for slaves to gather without a white person present, every plantation appeared to have its own black preacher who would hold church services exclusively for the slave population.
-Slave religion was a mix of African tradition and Christian beliefs practiced for the most part in secret.
The largest plantations were concentrated in coastal South Carolina and which geographic feature?
the Mississippi river
Identify the obstacles faced by slaves attempting to escape.
-There were regular slave patrols, law enforcement, and a legal system designed to ensure slaves did not escape from their masters.
-Slaves did not receive formal education and as a result they had little or no sense of geography, making it difficult to determine where to go after escaping.
-Often bonds between family members and friends were enough to deter slaves from leaving the plantation.
Identify the statements that describe the Old South.
-In 1860, the South produced less than 10 percent of the nation's manufactured goods.
-Southern railroads tended to be short lines designed to bring cotton to ports rather than integrate the South into a larger national network.
Slavery in the American South and the West Indies differed considerably. Identify the demographic differences in slavery in the following regions.
-West Indies: The number of male slaves outnumbered the female slaves.
-American South: Marriage among slaves in this region was much more common, leading to a greater possibility of creating family life.
-American South: The number of male and female slaves were about the same.
Identify the statements that describe slave marriage and life in the United States.
-Most adult slaves married and when their unions were not disrupted by sale, they typically married for a lifetime.
-One of every three slave marriages in slave-selling states, like Virginia, was broken by sale.
What does it reveal about the free black population?
-The entire black population in the North was free.
-The largest number of free blacks remained in the South.
With the price of slaves rising dramatically after the closing of the African slave trade, it made economic sense for slaveowners to pay less for health care and shelter.
While there were no traditional gender roles when it came to slaves' forced labor, in their private lives slaves did take on traditional gender roles, with women caring for the home and men providing for the family.
Identify the key differences between slavery in the United States and slavery in Brazil.
At the point of emancipation in Brazil, more than half of the slave population had already gained its freedom, while only 10 percent of slaves in the United States had gained its freedom by emancipation.
In the American South, states set limits on voluntary manumission, requiring such acts be approved by the legislature.
Identify the following slave rebellions and revolts in the nineteenth-century Atlantic World.
Creole: a ship seized by 135 slaves being transported from Norfolk to New Orleans; they changed its course to the British Bahamas where they were given refuge
Lousiana: an uprising that occurred on sugar plantations north of New Orleans. Some 500 men and women marched on New Orleans shouting "Death or Freedom."
Amistad: a celebrated incident in which fifty-three slaves took control of their ship and tried to redirect it to Africa
Gabriel's Rebellion: the first of four major slave conspiracies in the beginning of the nineteenth century that was led by a literate blacksmith who planned a large slave rebellion around Richmond
Identify the legal status and restrictions put on slaves in the American South.
Under the law, slaves were seen as property.
It was illegal to teach a slave to read and write.
Slaves could not testify in court against white persons, sign contracts, or acquire property.
Identify the statements that describe the Second Middle Passage.
Slave trading within the United States between 1820 and 1860 was a visible, established business.
Many commercial districts in southern cities contained the offices of slave traders, complete with signs reading "Negro Sales" or "Negroes Bought Here."
Virginia played a key role in the Second Middle Passage.
On the eve of the Civil War, nearly half a million free blacks lived in the United States, the majority of them in the South. Identify the statements that describe the restrictions under which free blacks lived.
They were prohibited from owning dogs, firearms, or liquor.
They could not strike a white person, even in self-defense.
They were not allowed to testify in court against whites.
In some ways, gender roles under slavery differed markedly from those in the larger society. Why did the nineteenth century's "cult of domesticity" not apply to slave women?
slave women were expected to work in the fields with men, not take care of home life
Slaveowners employed a variety of means in their attempts to maintain order and discipline among their human property and persuade them to labor productively. Identify the methods used to control slaves and force them to work for their masters.
whipping slaves and other physical punishments
prohibiting relations between house servants and field hands to prevent collaboration against the master
What does this advertisement reveal about how slaves were perceived in the South?
slaves were considered property, and as such were no different than a piece of furniture or horse
Slave owners attempted to prevent slaves from learning about the larger world around them. How did slaves acquire knowledge of current events?
many owners unaware that slaves created neighborhood networks that transmitted news of local and national importance b/w plantations
Identify the statements that describe Margaret Fuller by dragging them to her image.
-editor of the Transcendentalist magazine The Dial from 1840 to 1842.
-editor of the New York Tribune, the first woman to ever achieve so important a position in American journalism
According to Alexis de Tocqueville, how were Americans' political and social activities organized in the absence of a powerful government?
they were organized through voluntary associations such as churches, fraternal orders, political clubs etc
Match the individuals to their contributions to the abolitionist cause.
-David Walker: author of An Appeal to the Coloured Citizens of the World, which called on blacks to mobilize and warned whites they would be punished for their sinful ways
-William Lloyd Garrison: publisher of The Liberator, which promoted militant abolitionism
-Theodore Weld: brilliant orator whose rallies helped create a mass constituency in the heart of the North, in both rural areas and small towns
Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin was modeled to some extent on the autobiography of Frederick Douglass.
False, it was Josiah Henderson
Which of the following statements describe Harriet Beecher Stowe's Uncle Tom's Cabin?
-Uncle Tom's Cabin sold more than a million copies by 1854, and it inspired numerous stage versions.
-Stowe portrayed slaves as sympathetic men and women and as Christians at the mercy of slaveholders who split up families and set bloodhounds on innocent mothers and children.
Abolitionists pioneered the use of modern methods and technology to gain support and finance their cause. Which of the following are examples of their revolutionary approaches to fighting slavery?
-Abolitionists seized upon the recently developed steam printing press to produce millions of copies of pamphlets, newspapers, petitions, novels, and broadsides.
-They developed charity fairs or "bazaars," where women sold clothing and embroidery, luxury goods, and works of art to raise funds.
How have religious reformers made a difference in American society?
-They amplified the debate for abolition, using Christian principles to attack slavery.
-They spearheaded the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s.
-They created the Social Gospel that sought to improve the lives of working people and immigrants
Identify the statements that describe the Oneida community.
-Members wanted to create a "holy family" of equals by doing away with private property and traditional marriage.
-The founder, John Humphrey Noyes, ruled like a dictator over the community.
In 1836, when abolitionists began to flood Washington with petitions calling for emancipation in the nation's capital, the House of Representatives adopted the gag rule, which prohibited southern congressmen from speaking out against the petitions
Identify the statements that describe the goals and activities of the "utopian communities" established in the decades before the Civil War.
-wanted to narrow the gap between the rich and poor, as well as organize society on a cooperative basis
-tried to find substitutes for conventional gender relations and marriage patterns
How does Grimké explain that the discussion of wrongs of slavery opened the way for the discussion of other rights?
-By studying slavery, she realized women lacked basic freedoms as well.
Identify the abolitionist ideas Lydia Maria Child advocated in her An Appeal in Favor of That Class of Americans Called Africans (1833).
Blacks are fellow countrymen, not foreigners or a permanently inferior caste. As such, they should not be considered Africans any more than every white man be considered an Englishman.
The modern idea of human rights takes precedence over national sovereignty.
Identify the statements that describe the temperance movement.
The temperance movement claimed to have persuaded hundreds of thousands of Americans to renounce liquor.
The American Temperance Society, founded in 1826, directed its efforts at occasional drinkers, as well as habitual drinkers.
Horace Mann was the era's leading education reformer. Identify the statements that describe Mann's contributions and ideas on education.
Mann hoped that universal public education would restore equality to a fractured society.
Mann argued that schools could reinforce social stability by rescuing students from the influence of parents who failed to instill discipline.
The Liberty Party was created in 1840 and nominated James G. Birney as its candidate for president. Identify the statements that describe the Liberty Party.
James G. Birney received over half the votes cast for president in 1840.
The creation of the Liberty Party was partly due to some abolitionists' dislike of women playing prominent roles in politics.
Black communities in the North devised an alternative calendar of "freedom celebrations" that centered on which of the following significant dates?
January 1, which was the day in 1808 when the slave trade became illegal
August 1, the celebration of West Indian emancipation
Which of the following statements describe the abolitionist use of moral suasion?
They would stand outside established institutions and critique the institution of slavery.
They used the public sphere as their arena to spread ideas of the sinful nature of slavery.
What does it reveal about utopian communities in the mid-nineteenth century?
New York had many different utopian communities within its borders.
Shaker communities were spread throughout the United States in the first half of the nineteenth century.
The outlook called "perfectionism" held that even though individuals are flawed and commit sin, they are able to improve their lives through good choices in order to become better people.
dentify the statements that describe why was this image was frequently used by abolitionists.
The depiction of this slave represents African-Americans as unthreatening individuals seeking white assistance from slavery.
The image calls upon white Americans to recognize blacks as fellow men unjustly held in bondage.
The Kansas-Nebraska Act was so controversial that in the North the Democratic Party split into two camps during the election of 1858 (pro-Douglas and pro-Buchanan) and ran two candidates against the Republican contender.
Identify the statements that describe the impacts of the Gold Rush and the Civil War on the Native American population of California
Some 20,000 Indians in California worked in Catholic missions in virtual slavery, and after these missions were dismantled they gained little freedom.
By the end of the Civil War, the Indian population had been reduced from 150,000 to only 30,000.
In 1846, Congressman David Wilmot of Pennsylvania proposed a resolution that came to be known as the Wilmot Proviso. Identify the statements that describe the Wilmot Proviso.
It proposed that slavery be prohibited in the territories acquired from Mexico.
The failure of the Wilmot Proviso led to the creation of the Free Soil Party, which opposed the expansion of slavery.
Identify the statements that describe the U.S. railroad system in the 1850s.
By 1860, 60 million bushels of western wheat passed through Buffalo, New York, on the railroad on its way to eastern and world markets.
Between 1848 and 1860, railroad workers added more than 25,000 miles of new tracks.
Most of the new construction in the 1850s occurred in Ohio, Illinois, and other states in the Old Northwest Territory.
Which of the following events that took place between 1855 and 1856 helped fuel the rise of the Republican Party?
Stephen Douglas's policy of "popular sovereignty" was discredited by "Bleeding Kansas."
the brutal caning of Charles Sumner
Fill in the blanks to complete the passage describing the Dred Scott decision.
The Supreme Court ruling Dred Scott vs. Sandford held out hope of settling the slavery controversy once and for all. Scott had accompanied his owner to Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was illegal. Scott sued for his freedom, claiming that residence on free soil made him free. But the Supreme Court ruled that only whites could be citizens of the United States and, as a result, the Dred Scott decision declared the entire Republican platform unconstitutional for restricting slavery's expansion into the western United States.
The Republican Party of the 1850s stood for "free labor" and "free soil." Which of the following statements describe the Republican stance on slavery and labor?
Republicans were not abolitionists; they focused on preventing the spread of slavery, not attacking it where it already existed.
Republicans acknowledged that it was difficult for some white northern laborers to improve their lives and promised to help create more opportunities for them.
The Mexican-American War was the first war fought by the United States entirely on foreign soil, leading to the occupation of a foreign capital. The war was seen by its detractors as a war of aggression. Identify why the following American public figures opposed the Mexican War.
Ulysses S Grant-This leader served with distinction in the Mexican War but referred to the conflict as "one of the most unjust (wars) ever waged by a stronger nation against a weaker nation."
Henry David Thoreau-This public figure was jailed for refusing to pay his taxes in protest of the war and later wrote an essay defending his actions entitled "On Civil Disobedience."
Abraham Lincoln-This freshman congressman was disgusted by the behavior of the administration.
The Free Soil Party wanted to stop the expansion of slavery into the West. Identify the reasons people supported the Free Soil Party platform.
Northerners saw moving West as a form of economic betterment, so if the Free Soil Party blocked slavery's expansion, ordinary Americans wouldn't have to compete with plantations to have access to the land.
The Free Soil platform appealed to racist thinking in the North as it did not include emancipation or equal rights.
The Free Soil Party would create more free states, which would break southern domination of the federal government.
The Compromise of 1850 removed the slavery question from congressional debate. Yet, the new Fugitive Slave Act made further controversy inevitable. Which of the following provisions of the Fugitive Slave Act proved controversial?
The Fugitive Slave Act now prohibited state and local governments from intervening on behalf of fugitive slaves within their jurisdictions.
Fugitive slaves who were apprehended in the North were now subject to federal commissions that decided their fate outside the control of local and state laws.
The Know-Nothing Party swept the 1854 state elections. Fill in the blanks to complete the passage describing the Know-Nothing Party's political stance on immigration.
The Know-Nothing Party seemed to be one of contradictions: they wanted to limit the rights of immigrants, while promoting an antislavery agenda. Why would a political party argue for limiting the rights of one group, but expanding the rights of another? While they did rally against certain groups, like Catholics, it was mainly because these groups didn't support the same ideals for which they stood, including abolition and temperance. Ultimately, the Know-Nothings actually accomplished very little in limiting the rights of immigrants. All European immigrants benefited from being white. These groups had the advantage of being able to vote, while free blacks could not.
Before Lincoln assumed office on March 4, 1861, seven northern states had formed the Confederate States of America, adopted a constitution, and chosen a new president.
By 1856, the Republican Party was a coalition of antislavery Democrats, northern Whigs, Free Soilers, and Know-Nothings. The Republicans were a mixed group, but they all opposed the further expansion of slavery and quickly rose as the major alternative to the Democratic Party throughout the North. What was the Republican Party's platform and beliefs regarding slavery?
Republicans believed that "the Slave Power," the proslavery political leadership of the South, posed a greater danger to American liberty and aspirations than immigrants and Catholicism.
"Free labor" northern society offered opportunity to move up in life by allowing the laborer to move up to the status of landowner or craftsman.
Slavery spawned a social order only consisting of degraded slaves, poor whites with no hope of advancement, and idle aristocrats.
Texas annexation was not at the forefront of American politics until President John Tyler used it as a rallying cry for his bid for reelection in 1844. Identify the statements that describe the reactions of the nation to the annexation of Texas.
Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren, the prospective presidential candidates from both the Whig and Democratic parties, met and agreed to reject the immediate annexation of Texas on the grounds it might lead to war with Mexico.
A letter by Secretary of State John C. Calhoun to President Tyler was leaked to the press and linked the idea of absorbing Texas directly to the goal of strengthening slavery in the United States.
Identify the statements that describe westward migration and the factors that contributed to the movement in the 1840s
It is estimated that by 1860 nearly 300,000 men, women, and children had emigrated to Oregon and California.
A severe economic depression in 1837 sparked a large migration westward in search of opportunity.
Identify the statements that describe the results of the election of 1860.
Stephen Douglas, running as a northern Democrat, won the second-largest share of the popular vote.
Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge carried most of the South with 18 percent of the popular vote.
The Constitutional Union Party, which was quickly organized prior to the election, managed to come in third in both popular votes and electoral college votes.
The Dred Scott decision challenged the very heart of the Republican Party platform. What events occurred as a result of the Dred Scott decision?
Dred Scott was bought by a new master and immediately emancipated along with his family.
Slavery, according to President Buchanan, henceforth existed in all the territories "by virtue of the Constitution."
The first part of Mexico to be settled by large numbers of Americans was Tijuana.
Slavery had a disruptive impact on the traditional political parties and immediately caused political transformation in the mid-1850s. Identify the economic and social changes that led to the rise of the Republican Party.
mass immigration from Europe
completion of the market revolution and industrialization
Why did Abraham Lincoln oppose Crittenden's plan to save the Union?
Lincoln feared that Crittenden's reference to land "hereafter acquired" offered the South a thinly veiled invitation to demand the acquisition of Cuba, Mexico, and other territory suited to slavery.
Lincoln refused to compromise on the issue of the expansion of slavery.
In June of 1858, Abraham Lincoln accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to run against Senator Stephen Douglas. The Senate race turned the unknown Lincoln into a national political figure as he challenged, arguably, the most powerful senator in the United States. Which of the following statements describe Lincoln and his platform?
Lincoln began running for public office at the age of twenty-one and served four terms as a Whig in the state legislature and one term in Congress.
Lincoln hated slavery but was not an abolitionist.
While Lincoln did not think blacks were the equal of white men, he believed they deserved to enjoy the fruits of their labor.
Senator Stephen Douglas hoped to apply the principle of popular sovereignty to the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Identify what "popular sovereignty" means and how it was used in Douglas's reasoning.
Popular sovereignty is the principle that people should rule, and as such the status of slavery should be determined by the votes of local settlers and not Congress.
Popular sovereignty was seen as a political middle ground on the issue of slavery.
What does the map reveal about continual expansion through 1853?
Florida was purchased in 1819. It became a territory of the United States in 1822 and a state by 1845.
Northern Maine was acquired from Great Britain in 1842.
The territory of Texas extended beyond the contemporary state boundaries into present-day New Mexico and Colorado when it was annexed in 1845.
John Brown raided the federal arsenal at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, in the hopes of starting a slave revolt. Brown became a public figure and conducted himself with great courage and dignity, winning admiration even from those who opposed his violent deeds. Which of the following statements about John Brown are true?
Brown's force that attacked Harper's Ferry on October 16, 1859, numbered only twenty-one men, five of whom were black.
Brown was executed by the state of Virginia.
During the Kansas civil war, Brown murdered five proslavery settlers at Pottawatomie Creek in revenge for the attack on free soil.
What arguments did southerners advocating secession from the Union put forth?
They were concerned that Republicans would extend their party into the South by appealing to non-slaveholders.
They were concerned about a Republican-dominated government and what it would mean for the South.
Identify the arguments made by these American political figures during the Great Debate that led to the Compromise of 1850.
John C Calhoun-rejected any idea of compromise on slavery
William H Sewerd-argued that a "higher law" than the Constitution—the law of morality—condemned slavery, and so southerners had no right to claim that abolition was a violation of their constitutional rights
Daniel Webster-wanted to abandon the Wilmot Proviso if it meant sectional peace
The Civil War was not the first war in which modern weaponry and technology was used to affect the outcome on the battlefield. That distinction belongs to the Crimean War (1854-56). What new technologies were revolutionizing warfare in the 1860s?
The telegraph was used to command and control a vast area of operations.
The mass-produced rifled musket allowed for greater accuracy.
Ironclad warships participated in direct combat with one another.
Initially, as Union forces moved into Confederate territory, escaped slaves were returned to their owners in a policy to show southerners that the federal government had no intention of interfering with slavery. Yet this policy changed as the war progressed. Eventually, escaped slaves were welcomed into Union lines. Identify the reasons for the change in escaped slaves' status by Union forces.
Long before Lincoln called for emancipation, blacks in the North and South referred to the war as the "freedom war." This undermined the institution throughout the South and led to mass exoduses to Union lines.
The Confederacy set slaves to work as military laborers, and so increasingly more blacks were escaping to northern lines.
As in the North, Confederate women found themselves drawn into many spheres of life normally reserved for men. How did Confederate women respond to the hardships of war?
Eventually, women's morale collapsed, which led to a general collapse of morale both at home and in the Confederate armies.
Initially, as in the North, women worked in factories and businesses, ran plantations, and attempted to farm with some enthusiasm.
The Battle of Chancellorsville in April 1863 was a brilliant victory for Lee in central Virginia, as he was outnumbered by General Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac two to one.
The Battle of Chancellorsville in April 1863 was a brilliant victory for Lee in central Virginia, as he was outnumbered by General Joseph Hooker's Army of the Potomac two to one.
The Battle of Appomattox Courthouse, or the last stand of the Army of Northern Virginia, was the bloodiest and most useless battle of the Civil War, as Richmond and most of the South were occupied by Union forces and defeat was obvious.
In 1863, Lincoln announced his Ten-Percent Plan of Reconstruction for occupied Louisiana and other areas of the Confederacy occupied by Union forces. The plan proved controversial. Identify the statements that accurately describe Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan of Reconstruction.
Lincoln essentially offered amnesty and full restoration rights, including property (except slaves), to nearly all white southerners who took an oath of loyalty to the Union and supported emancipation.
Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan offered no role to blacks in shaping the post-slavery order. This led to free blacks pushing for equality before the law and a role in government.
In July 1863, Lee again invaded the North and clashed with federal forces at the Battle of Gettysburg in Pennsylvania. Instead of defeating the federals on their own territory, Lee himself was defeated. Identify the statements that accurately describe the Battle of Gettysburg.
With over 165,000 men engaged in the battle, Gettysburg is the largest battle ever to have taken place in North America.
Gettysburg was unusual for Lee in that he was on the strategic offensive in northern territory as opposed to being on the strategic defensive on southern ground.
Gettysburg was a crushing defeat for Lee, and his army would never again return to northern soil.
As a quick and conventional military victory eluded Union armies, Radical Republicans moved the nation closer to the idea of total emancipation as an economic means to hurt the Confederacy. Identify the steps taken by the Union against slavery before total emancipation.
the Second Confiscation Act
abolition in the District of Columbia and the territories
a March 1862 prohibition by Congress on the Union army from returning fugitive slaves
Union forces in the Western Theater met great success in the first two years of the war, arguably fatally crippling the Confederacy in the process. Who are the two major military figures that brought Union victory in the West during the first two years of the war?
General Ulysses S. Grant
Admiral David G. Farragut
Grant's strategy of attrition worked brilliantly, as by the end of 1864 he captured Petersburg, Virginia, and forced the surrender of Robert E. Lee.
Identify the advantages that the Union held over the Confederacy at the outbreak of the Civil War.
The Union had more railroad mileage, industrial capacity, and financial resources.
The Union had a larger population.
The Union had control of the Atlantic Ocean.
The Wade-Davis Bill was an unsuccessful bill named after two leading Republican members of Congress unhappy with Lincoln's Ten-Percent Plan of Reconstruction. Which of the following were provisions of the Wade-Davis Bill?
The bill required a majority, not 10 percent, of white male southerners to pledge support for the Union before Reconstruction commenced.
The Wade-Davis Bill called for equality for blacks before the law.
The Bill passed Congress but was dead when Lincoln refused to sign it.
Put the following battles in chronological order to show the progression of the Civil War.
the battle of the bull run
the seven days campaign
second battle of bull run
battle of antietam
Identify the statements that accurately describe the secession of the southern states and the creation of the Confederate States of America.
North Carolina was the last Confederate state to secede from the Union.
Louisiana seceded before the fall of Fort Sumter.
At the outset of the Civil War, Abraham Lincoln invoked time-honored Northern values to mobilize support for the war. Which of the following are statements or ideas used by Lincoln to garner support for the Union war effort?
Lincoln insisted in the first year of the war that it was not about slavery, but rather the preservation of the Union.
Lincoln believed the differences between the North and the South were the familiar arguments of the free labor ideology.
Lincoln identified the Union cause with the fate of democracy for all of mankind.
During the summer of 1862, Lincoln concluded that emancipation had become a political and military necessity. Many factors contributed to this decision. Which of the following are factors that led Lincoln to issue the Emancipation Proclamation?
There was a lack of a quick military success to end the war.
An economic strategy, such as eliminating slavery, would undermine the entire southern economy.
The most radical implication of the Emancipation Proclamation was the enrollment of blacks into military service in the Union army. Identify the statements that describe the military contributions to the Union cause during the Civil War.
By the end of the Civil War, over 180,000 black men had served in the Union army and 24,000 in the Union navy.
Initially, the Union army refused to accept northern black volunteers.
What does this map reveal about the impact of the Emancipation Proclamation?
Louisiana was split between territory exempt from and subject to the Emancipation Proclamation.
The Emancipation Proclamation did not apply to Missouri.
Identify the reasons why the Battle of Antietam on September 17, 1862, was significant.
The dead, according to a survivor of the battle, lay three deep in the field, mowed down "like grass before the scythe."
Lee's invasion of the North resulted in the single bloodiest day in American military history.
One little-known aspect of the Civil War was the Union's continuing wars against the Native Americans in the West. Identify the statements that accurately describe Native Americans and the Union in the West during the Civil War.
The Navajo's Long Walk was the Navajo people's forced removal from the their ancestral lands by the U.S. army.
The Cherokee, forced to Oklahoma by the Indian Removal Act, still owned slaves and sided with the Confederacy at the time of the Civil War.
The U.S. Army attacked the Kiowas and Comanches in the Southwest in retaliation for raids on settlements and ranches.
During the Civil War, the Union and Confederacy rarely utilized propaganda through newspapers and mass marketing to mobilize public opinion.
Why did Abraham Lincoln wait until after the Battle of Antietam to announce his Preliminary Emancipation Proclamation?
secretary of state william seward thought lincoln should wait for a victory, lest emancipation seen as a desperate act of a losing nation
During the Civil War, Christianity and patriotism were joined in a civic religion unprecedented in American history. How did the war transform American religious and political life?
People turned to religion and spiritualism to cope with the unprecedented number of deaths.
Many clergy in the North professed that the war was God's instrument to rid the nation of slavery and turn it into the true land of freedom.
first battle in Grant's 1864 campaign
Battle of atlanta-culmination of Sherman's 1864 campaign
battle of cold harbor-After this battle, Grant's army had suffered as many casualties as Lee had men at the beginning of the 1864 campaign.
battle of wilderness-first battle in Grant's 1864 campaign
The intense new nationalism in the North made criticism of the war effort and the Lincoln administration tantamount to treason to many northerners. Identify the statements that accurately describe wartime dissent under the Lincoln administration.
The Constitution was murky on addressing who held the power to suspend the writ of habeas corpus, and so Lincoln claimed that right under the presidential war powers and suspended it twice for those accused of "disloyal activities."
Arbitrary arrests for dissenting views numbered in the thousands during the war, and they included opposition newspaper editors, Democratic politicians, and simple ordinary civilians.
Identify the statements that describe sharecropping.
a compromise between blacks' desire for landownership and whites' need to discipline their labor force
guaranteed planters a stable labor force
preferred by former slaves because it allowed them to work without white supervision
required farmers to divide the crop with the landowner at the end of the year
Identify the statements below that describe the Reconstruction amendments.
served as the constitutional basis for the civil rights movement of the 1960s
consisted of three amendments, which ultimately led to the incorporation of black Americans into society as citizens
How did Congress attempt to eradicate the power of the Ku Klux Klan?
Fill in the blanks to complete the statement describing the different political offices black men filled during Reconstruction.
More than 2,000 African-American men held public office during Reconstruction. They were elected into positions at all levels of government, including the House of Representatives, the U.S. Senate, and as governor of Louisiana. This represented a fundamental shift in power in the South.
The Liberal Republican Party began to side with Democrats in believing that the federal government's power had grown too much during the war and needed to be curtailed.
Former slaves worked to reunite and stabilize their families in the Reconstruction period.
The Fifteenth Amendment prohibited the federal and state governments from denying any citizen the right to vote because of race.
The Ku Klux Klan was a racially motivated terrorist organization that spread throughout the entire South during Reconstruction.
Identify the factors that contributed to the weakening of northern support for Reconstruction.
northern journalists' depictions of the failure of southern black leadership
the economic depression of the early 1870s
the growth of Democratic power in Congress
the Supreme Court's failure to fully uphold the rights of blacks
Identify the components of Andrew Johnson's plan for Presidential Reconstruction.
appointment of provisional governors
abolition of slavery
repudiation of secession
refusal to pay Confederate debts
pardon nearly all white southerners who took an oath of allegiance to the Union
state conventions to establish new, loyal state governments
In what ways does the contract limit the freedom of the laborers?
The freedmen are contractually obligated to "obey" the landowner.
The freedmen are required to compensate the landowner if they miss work for a day.
Identify the provisions of the Radical plan for Reconstruction.
the Fourteenth Amendment
temporary division of the South into military districts
creation of new state governments
state guarantees of black men's right to vote
Fill in the blanks to complete the statement describing the new systems of labor that emerged in the South.
The task system survived in the rice kingdoms of South Carolina and Georgia, while wage labor was preferred in Louisiana's sugar plantations. Sharecropping came to dominate in the cotton and tobacco regions of Virginia and North Carolina.
Identify the ways in which blacks celebrated their freedom.
by attending mass meetings and religious services
by purchasing guns and alcohol
Why was education so important to freed blacks?
They wanted to be able to read the Bible.
They wanted to prepare to participate in the economic marketplace.
They wanted the opportunity to take part in politics.
Identify the statements that describe the Civil Rights Bill of 1866.
defined all persons born in the United States as citizens
ensured all citizens enjoyed a set of basic rights
The new state governments under the control of Republicans failed to improve life in the South during Reconstruction.
How did the new state constitutions drafted during Radical Reconstruction expand public responsibilities and provide for equal rights?
They established a state-funded free public education system.
They created state-run and funded institutions like orphanages, prisons, and homes for the insane.
Identify the statements that describe the objectives of the Freedmen's Bureau.
provide aid to the poor and aged
settle disputes between blacks and whites
secure equal treatment for blacks before the courts
establish schools for blacks
Why did northern Republican support for Reconstruction diminish in the 1870s?
Many of the Radical Republicans who had established the Reconstruction plan had died.
Many northerners believed that the South should be able to solve its own problems.
Many believed that the federal government had created the conditions of freedom, and success was now up to blacks.
Republicans began to face criticism from their constituencies about the cost of Reconstruction.
How did the Black Codes attempt to regulate the lives of former slaves?
They denied blacks the right to testify in court against whites.
They prohibited blacks from serving on juries.
They denied blacks the right to serve in state militias.
They did not allow blacks to vote.
How did the Reconstruction amendments change the Constitution?
They expanded the definition of citizenship to include non-whites.
They established the federal government as the protector of rights.
Both the Alien and Sedition Acts were viewed with tremendous suspicion. Identify who suffered most under the enforcement of each of the Acts.
-Republican newspaper editors
did not suffer under either Act
Thomas Jefferson dispatched Lewis and Clark to explore the West. Identify the objectives Jefferson established for this team.
locate a quicker route to Asia
identify possible commercial opportunities
extend diplomatic efforts with natives
Identify the significance of the Haitian Revolution for both African-Americans and white Americans.
African-Americans saw the Haitian Revolution as the promise of freedom, and many free blacks emigrated to Haiti as a result.
For white Americans, the Haitian Revolution reinforced their fears of slave revolts; as a result, many whites in Haiti emigrated to the United States.
In what ways did public life become democratized throughout the 1790s?
The general public engaged in bitter debates over economic policy.
Ordinary citizens formed political societies to discuss political issues and to criticize the government.
Identify the statements that describe the War of 1812.
The American government had issues financing the conflict as it was unable to receive loans from northern merchants.
The war had two fronts: the British and the Indians.
It was called the "second war of independence" as Americans were fighting once again against the British.
US won Lake Erie
American leaders believed the success of the new government depended on maintaining political harmony. What were they most concerned would lead to conflicts?
The Treaty of Ghent, ending the War of 1812, largely favored the United States.
What does it reveal about the first encounter between the United States and the Barbary Wars?
The final conflict took place in a port in Tripoli, in present-day Libya.
The war was fought by the newly expanded navy to protect American commerce.
Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson bargained for southerners to accept consolidating the national debt. In exchange for this, the new permanent capital for the United States was built in the area of Virginia and Maryland.
Identify the statements that describe the Embargo Act and its repercussions.
Jefferson banned all American ships heading to foreign ports in order to use trade as a weapon to protect American interests.
Britain and France were too distracted by their own conflicts to notice the embargo; as a result, American port cities were devastated.
American exports plummeted 80 percent
At the end of the eighteenth century, France and Britain were at war with each other; the United States remained neutral. Even so, America found itself in a "quasi-war" with the French. Identify the cause of this "quasi-war."
The French not only seized American ships but they also demanded bribery for the privilege of negotiating with them
Gabriel's Rebellion was inspired by the revolutionary language of freedom that was popular at the time. But, unlike the American Revolution, Gabriel's Rebellion wasn't a success. The former slave's attempt to liberate slaves was foiled, and ultimately blacks experienced even less freedom in the early nineteenth century.
The Louisiana Purchase happened between the United States and France. Identify why France was willing to sell the territory to the United States.
Napoleon needed money to finance his war in Europe
What does this map reveal about why Jefferson referred to his victory as the Revolution of 1800?
jefferson won almost all of the electoral votes in the south
What does this painting reveal about Americans' feelings toward the British around the time of the War of 1812?
The broken chain on the rock represents American freedom from the bonds of the British monarchy.
The caption, "We owe allegiance to no crown," describes the American navy's sentiments toward the British.
The sailor crushing the crown underfoot represents disdain for the British.
Identify the statements that describe the Marbury v. Madison decision and its significance.
The decision in the case found part of the Judiciary Act of 1789 unconstitutional for allowing courts to order executive officials to deliver judges' commissions.
The decision in the case demonstrated the Court's power to review laws of Congress.
Identify the statements that describe Jay's Treaty and its outcomes.
Britain agreed to abandon outposts on the western frontier.
The United States guaranteed preferential treatment of British imported goods.
It was the greatest public controversy of Washington's presidency, and it sharpened political divisions in the United States.
Identify the statements that describe Mary Wollstonecraft's opinions on the rights of women.
Wollstonecraft argued for greater access to standard education and paid employment for single women.
Wollstonecraft suggested that woman should have representation in government.
Identify the statements that describe Hamilton's proposal for the Bank of the United States.
The Bank of the United States would be a private corporation.
The Bank of the United States would provide loans to the government.
The Bank of the United States would issue currency.
What does it reveal about the War of 1812?
The United States was fighting two fronts: the British and Native Americans.
The British successfully leveraged a naval blockade of the Atlantic coast.
Why did the Federalist Party ultimately collapse after the War of 1812?
they appeared unpatriotic calling for a rewriting of the U.S. Constitution
Identify the statement that describes the significance of the Hartford Convention.
it established the two-thirds rule that required a majority vote in Congress to add new states, declare war, or establish laws that restrict trade
Political divisions first surfaced over the financial plan developed by Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton. Identify the five parts of Hamilton's financial plan.
establish the new nation's credit worthiness
creation of a new national debt
creation of the Bank of the United States
impose a tax on whiskey producers in order to raise revenue
encourage the development of factories by imposing a tariff on imported goods
As head of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton created a plan to make America financially independent. While Hamilton's Report on Manufactures (1791) encouraged the development of factories to make America financially independent, people like Thomas Jefferson and James Madison disagreed with his approach. Jefferson and Madison believed the future of financial growth depended on which commercial activity?
During the War of 1812, Tecumseh was a valuable partner of the United States.
What does this painting reveal about ideas of freedom, independence, and national pride in the early nineteenth century?
Americans were proud of their independence from Britain, and the symbolic figure stepping on the crown represents the new country's goal to become a major power.
Washington was a hero to citizens of the new country, and he was memorialized as a representative of freedom, which is demonstrated by the wreath being placed on his head by Lady Liberty.
Fill in the blanks to complete the passage describing the XYZ affair.
The XYZ affair resulted in a "quasi-war" between the United States and France. When a representative from the United States visited Paris to negotiate a new trade agreement, they were met by officials demanding bribes before the negotiations could move forward. As a result, America's relationship with its former ally was severely strained, and the U.S. and French navies clashed at sea
Identify how the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794 was similar to the American Revolution.
Pennsylvania farmers were protesting tax, similar to taxes protested in the Revolution
The election of 1800 caused confusion for Americans when the House of Representatives was tasked with choosing between Thomas Jefferson and his vice-presidential running mate due to a tie. Identify the action taken by Congress in order to avoid this problem in the future.
They passed the Twelfth Amendment, requiring separate electors to cast separate votes for president and vice president
As George Washington settled into his presidency, factions argued about the role of the new government. Which of the following represents the views on government held by the "strict constructionists"?
the gov can only exercise powers written in the original U.S. Constitution
Everyone in the country did not embrace the market revolution. Identify the group of people who felt that its modern, streamlined, and scheduled system interfered with individual actions and growth.
The concept of "Liberty of Living" made economic security an essential part of American freedom.
Identify the statement that describes nativist attitudes in the 1840s and 1850s.
fearing immigrants would take their jobs, native born Americans discriminated againsts immigrants
Although evangelical preachers railed against the greed by promoting industry, sobriety, and self-discipline as examples of moral behavior, they encouraged the same qualities necessary for success in the market culture.
The Second Great Awakening concerned the "awakening" of what type of devotion?
Ralph Waldo Emerson embraced the idea of "individualism," which advocated for Americans to depend on no one but themselves.
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