Microbio Ch. 17 - The Good Stuff - Logan

The vaccine against smallpox developed by Edward Jenner is an example of a(n) ________ vaccine.
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What type of vaccine is the hepatitis B vaccine?A recombinant vaccine composed of a single antigen of the hepatitis virusSerologic tests may be used to detect ________ for diagnosis of diseaseAntigen-specific antibodiesIn precipitation tests, maximum precipitation takes place whenThe amount of the antibody and the amount of the antigen are at optimal proportionsThe complement fixation test uses red blood cells as the target for complement activation. Test serum containing antibodies is combined with a known amount of antigen in a tube, and then the RBCs and antibodies against the RBCs are added. A positive result for the complement fixation test would beA cloudy solution in the tubeA(n) ________ assay is used for rapid identification of influenza infections.ImmunochromatographicA(n) ________ vaccine to prevent cervical cancer was recently developed.RecombinantViral neutralization testing is based on the fact thatViruses introduced into appropriate cell cultures have a cytopathic effect.Which of the following assays is dependent on the ability of antibodies to bind to and crosslink two antigens?Precipitation testsAlmost a century after Edward Jenner introduced successful vaccination, Louis Pasteur developedBoth anthrax and rabiesExposure to HIV can be verified using a(n) ________ assay.Western blotKilled vaccines work by stimulatingAn antibody mediated responseWhich of the following statements regarding toxoids is FALSE?They provide lifelong immunityWhen immunization levels in a population are high, ________ provides protection from infection for at-risk persons who cannot be immunized.Herd immunityA person who has been exposed to rabies receives both HRIG (human rabies immunoglobulin) injected near the bite site and the rabies vaccine. What does this strategy represent?Active immunization combine with passive immunotherapyAntivenin is a(n)Antitoxin used to treat snakebitesThe study and diagnosis of antigen-antibody interactions in the blood is known asSerologyGenetic manipulation of a microbe to remove one or more virulence factors is a method for producing a(n) ________ vaccineAttenuatedOPV, the attenuated oral poliovirus vaccine, is no longer administered in the U.S.A. because itCan revert to wild-type virulenceThe discovery of antibodies and the understanding of their actions lead to ________ treatments for disease.Passive immunotherapyA(n)________ assay is used to detect hantavirus.Viral neutralizationA woman uses a home pregnancy test kit that tests for hCG hormone in urine. She knows this is a type of antibody assay from the kit brochure. Antibodies reacting with the hormone produce two lines on the test strip. What specific type of antibody assay does this represent?An immunochromatographic assayTuberculosis may be diagnosed usingDirect fluorescent antibody (DFA)Titration is a serological procedure thatDetermines the amount of an antibody in the bloodWhich of the following statements regarding an inactivated vaccine is FALSE?It is made from mutated forms of the pathogenAn infectious disease researcher isolates the pathogen responsible for an emerging disease. The microbe is grown in the lab for many generations. A preparation of the laboratory-grown microbe is treated with ionizing radiation and then tested for its potential as a vaccine. What type of vaccine is this?Inactivated wholeWhich of the following statements regarding ELISAs is TRUE?They can be used to detect antibody or antigenHybridomas are produced byFusing plasma cells with myeloma cellsWhich of the following statements regarding variolation is FALSE?It was risk-freePassive immunotherapy is used whenProtection against a recent infection or disease is needed immediatelyWhich of the following diagnostic procedures depends on precipitation of antigen-antibody complexes?ImmunodiffusionInfection with Neisseria gonorrhoeae can be detected in specimens by the ________ test.Indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)Agglutination tests can be used toEstimate the amount (titer) of antibodies in a person's serum.Which of the following tests is most effective in determining whether someone has been infected with the H1N1 influenza virus?A viral hemagluttination testAnti-human antibodies (specific for human IgG antibodies) with fluorescent molecules covalently attached are used forDirect fluorescent antibody (DFA)Infection with the fungus Coccidioides immitis can be diagnosed using a(n) ________ assay.Immunodiffusion precipitationModern vaccine technology can involve inserting the D N A encoding the pathogen's antigen(s) into a ___________________ and injecting it into an individual.PlasmidThe fusion of antibody-producing plasma cells with cancerous cells produces _____________________ that divide continuously.HybridomaOne way to measure the antibody levels in the blood is by _________________ using agglutination tests.TitrationRaising viruses for numerous generations can produce an ________________________ form of the virus.AttenuatedWhen vaccines do not provide lifelong immunity, __________________ must be given to maintain protectionBoostersA(n) __________________ assay uses antibodies bound on the surface of a membrane filter to detect antigens.ImmunofiltrationChemically or thermally modified toxins that are used for vaccination are called (_________________________).ToxoidsDeliberate infection of young children with particles of ground smallpox scabs from children who had survived mild cases of smallpox was known asVariolationSnakebites are treated withAntiveninsA microbe antigenically similar to human pathogen but incapable of causing disease in humans is a good candidate for use as a(n) _____________________ vaccine.AttenuatedFluorescent antibody, ELISA, and immunoblotting tests involve the use of ____________________ antibodies.LabeledMaterial that are added to a vaccine to increase the effective antigenicity are known asAdjuvantsThis device is used in a(n) _________________________ test.ImmunochromatographicImmunization with ___________________________ vaccines results in primarily an antibody-mediated immune responseInactivatedAntisera directed against toxins are known as ______________________AntitoxinsAgglutination tests are used to detect soluble antigens T/FFalsePassive immunotherapy does not result in immunological memory. T/FTrueComplement fixation is a more sensitive test for the presence of specific antibodies than are agglutination tests T/FTrueThe virulence of the rabies virus is increased by prolonged culture in rabbit spinal cells. T/FFalseBecause attenuated live vaccines contain viruses that are less virulent, many booster vaccines must be given to produce an effective immune response T/FFalseThe "sandwich" ELISA is used to quantify the amount of antibody in a serum sample. T/FFalseFor some bacterial diseases such as tetanus, it is more effective to produce an immune response against the bacterial toxin than against the bacteria.TrueEdward Jenner was the physician who first used cowpox to vaccinate individuals against smallpox T/FTrueAnti-antibodies are used in indirect antibody assays. T/FTrueELISAs require less reaction time than do immunofiltration assays. T/FFalse