SCI 112- Chapter 14

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Terms in this set (...)

polyculture
garden planted with a mixture of plants
monoculture
large area of land is planted with the same crop throughout
macronutrients
a nutrient that a plant needs in large amounts in order to grow
micronutrients
a nutrient that is needed in very small amounts for proper plant growth
pesticide
any chemical used to kill or control populations that are unwanted
pests
unwanted fungi, animals, or plants
weeds
term for unwanted plants
insecticides
pesticide used to control insect populations by killing them
fugicides
pesticide used to kill or control fungi
rodenticides
pesticide used to kill mice and rats
herbicides
pesticide used to kill plants pests or weeds
biocides
a kind of chemical that kills many different types of living things
target organism
the organism that a pesticide is designed to eliminate
nontarget organism
an organism whose elimination is not the purpose of a pesticide application
persistent pesticides
a pesticide that remains unchanged for a long period of time; a hard pesticide
nonpersistent pesticides
a pesticide that degrades in a short period of time
chlorinated hydrocarbons
a class of pesticides consisting of carbon, hydrogen, and chlorine; these pesticides are very stable
organophosphates
a class of soft pesticides that work by interfering with normal nerve impulses
carbamates
a class of soft pesticides that work by interfering with normal nerve impulses
auxins
a plant hormone that regulates growth
bioaccummulation
the buildup of a material in the body of an organism
biomagnification
the increase in the amount of material in the bodies of organisms at higher trophic levels
alternative agriculture
all nontraditional agricultural practices
sustainable agriculture
agricultural methods used to produce safe food in an economical manner while enhancing the health of agricultural land and surrounding ecosystems
organic agriculture
agriculture practices that avoid using chemicals and pesticides when producing food and therefore are not damaging to ecosystems and consumers
precision agriculture
the use of computer technology and geographic information systems to automatically vary the chemicals applied to the crop at different places within a field
integrated pest management
a method of pest management in which many aspects of the pest's biology are exploited to control its numbers
pheromone
chemical released by females to attract males (insects)
genetic engineering
inserting specific pieces of DNA into the genetic makeup of organisms
biotechnology
inserting specific pieces of DNA into the genetic makeup of organisms
genetically modified organism
organisms that have had their genetic makeup modified by biotechnology