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Music Praxis - Music History
These flash cards are to help my fellow music ed majors that are preparing to PASS the praxis II music content knowledge test. Hope this helps!
Terms in this set (231)
solo vocal piece with instrumental accompaniment
French baroque dance in fast duple meter
Music composition using sacred texts(baroque)
A french polyphonic song (late middle ages & renaissance)
Protestant hymn melody (baroque)
composition for an organ (baroque)
composition for an orchestra & 1 or more solo instrument (classical period)
chamber music(classical period)
a study piece composition for development part of technique
loud brass instruments (esp. trumpets)
imitative polyphonic composition, themes repeat
french peasant dance (baroque)
popular baroque dance
A secular song for 2 or 3 unaccompanied voices (renaissance)
polyphonic composition sacred text w/ out accompaniment (renaissance)
A musical dramatic work
plain chant, note against note counterpoint (medieval)
continuous variations on ground bass, similar to chaconne (baroque)
spoken song (romantic)
french lyrical poem (renaissance)
most popular baroque instrumental dance
composition for 1 or more solo instruments, one of which is usually a keyboard instrument, usually consisting of of 3 or 4 independent movements varying in key, mood, and tempo
group of completed songs (like a cd/ romantic)
2 violins, viola, & a cello (classical)
An instrumental composition consisting of a series of varying movements or pieces
orchestral form (ex. Lizst) (romantic)
an extended piece in 3 or more movements for a symphony orchestra
keyboard piece, free in form, that displays dexterity (baroque)
(bowing technique)hammered stroke with a crisp
(bowing technique)one bow per note
(bowing technique) bouncing bow quickly
(bowing technique)seperate slurred notes used in slow tempos
During the 18th & 19th centuries involved improvisation as part of the performance
(drumming technique)one loud hit
(drumming technique) 1 beat preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba-dop)
(drumming technique)2 beats preceeding 1 beat (ex. ba/da-bop)
20th century composers
Bartok, Babbitt, Aaron Copeland, Phillip Glass
Chopin, Brahms,Beethoven, Mahler, Mendelssohn
Mozart, Haydn, Gluck
Hildegard von Bingen, Perotin
Guillaume dufay, orlando di Lasso, Palestrina, William Byrd
monophonic, plain chant
polyphonic, no instruments, motet &madrigal
small orchestras w/ basso continuo, keyboards
simple melodies, strings dominate, alberti bass
Bach, Handel, Moteverdi, Vivaldi
Complex jazz style developed in the 1940's. Also bop. A jazz style which developed in the 1940's characterized by very fast or very slow tempos with improvised lines of eighth notes, irregular accents, and an extended harmony. The patterns often ended with an abrupt two-note figure that sounded like "be-bop".
American form of folk music related to jazz. It is based on a simple, repetitive, poetic-musical structure.
(1917-1920)An early style of jazz originating in the early 20th century in New Orleans with a simple, cheerful character.
(late 19th century) stands for the type of religious popular song that succeeded the SPIRITUAL
is the term that refers to the style of music that emerged in Detroit, Michigan in the late 1960's. The Sound was a mixture of several popular musical styles and can be considered a form of soul music.
An American style of music characterized by "ragged" or syncopated rhythms. It was popular between the 1890's and the 1910's. (Scott Joplin)
An American style of rhythmic chanting consisting of improvised rhymes performed to rhythmic accompaniment.
Rhythm & Blues
An American pop music style popular between the 1940's and 1960's.played by an ensemble, generally with a lead vocalist or instrumentalist, a rhythm section, and an ensemble of voices, wind instruments, or guitar.
American style of jazz music originating in the 1930's. characterized by "big band" instrumentation, a greater emphasis on solo passages, and a 4/4 tempo with an almost even emphasis on each beat of the measure.
Who composed "Prelude to the Afternoon of a Faun?"
Who composed " The Four Seasons?"
What is the name of the numbering scheme used to categorize mozarts wk?
Köchel Verzeichnis or Köchel Catalog
A term used to classify a composition in relation to the composer's other compositions.
Abbreviated as "Op." (work) or "Opp." (works)
a composition by Richard Strauss for cello, viola and large orchestra.
Don Quixote, op. 35
Composer of "moonlight sonata"
Ludwig van Beethoven
Abbreviation for Bach-Werke-Verzeichnis, used to catalogue the compositions of J. S. Bach.
Famous performers of the swing era
Duke Ellington & Benny Goodman
What instrument does Wynton Marsalis play?
What instrument does Benny goodman play?
Famous drum soloist?
What instrument does Louis Armstrong Play?
What instrument does John Coltrane Play?
What instrument does thelonious monk play?
Bebop jazz artist that played the trumpet, piano, and trombone
1st scale degree
2nd scale degree
3rd scale degree
4th scale degree
5th scale degree
6th scale degree
7th Scale degree
ends on V
German Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ minor3
Italian Augmented Sixth
augmented 6+ Major3
French Augmented sixth
augmented 6+ M2
Gradually accelerating or getting faster
An Upbeat or a pickup note(s); a term used for unstressed notes at the beginning of a phrase of music.
Statement of a melody in longer note values, often twice as slow as the original.
A Renaissance and Baroque ornamentation which consists of the restatement of a melody in which the note values are shortened, usually by half.
In early music, this term meant the ratio of 3:2, employed musically in two senses: the ratio of the perfect fifth, whose musical value is 3:2, and the rhythmic relation of three notes in the time of two, i.e., the triplet. In the Baroque era hemiola was used in dance music in the sense that it denoted the articulation of two measures of triple meter as if they were three measures of duple meter.
A Medieval practice of composition in which two voices would move in such a manner that one would be still while the other moved and vice-versa. Sometimes this was achieved by taking a single melody and breaking it into short, one or two note phrases, and dividing the phrases between the two voices so that a quick back-and-forth movement of the melody would be heard
Deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse of a composition by means of a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an off-beat.
Music that is written for only one voice or part
A style of composition that has many voices, each with its own melody, thus creating a rich texture of sound.
there is a distinct melody with accompanying harmony, but all move in the same rhythmic pattern.
The practice of two or more musicians simultaneously performing slightly different versions of the same melody.
smooth and connected
detached & seperated
poco a poco
little by little
A tempo marking indicating a quick duple meter
held back & slowing down
The quality of a sound; that component of a tone that causes different instruments (for example a guitar and a violin) to sound different from each other while they are both playing the same note.
This occurs when in a melodic line is performed backwards.
Instruments that produce sound by using air
instruments that produce sound by vibrating string
percussion (ex. cymbals)
(k-12) vocal rage k-4
about an octave starting from middle C
What is the natural minor scale mode?
makes up the pentatonic scale
refers to a repeating pitch or pattern that is quick & continuous
an ornamentation completed by rapid moving between 2 pitches that are sequential within the key of the particular piece
Basses can sing in the range of...
D2-C4 or middle C
Baritones can sing in the range of ..
Tenors can sing in the range of ..
Contraltos can sing in the range of ..
Mezzo sopranos can sing in the range of..
Sopranos can sing in the range of ...
C4-C6 or high C
The registers of the voice
chest, middle, and head
Who developed the adaptation of solfege for the musical instruction of children?
steps of conducting
1. preparation 2. ictus 3. rebound 4.Penultimate beat placing 5. Final beat placing
indicated by the speed of the acceleration and the force of the ictus
the pt of the rebound
indicated by the size of the preparation
is the space between the ictus of one beat and the ictus of the next
is indicated by the shape of the preparation
What is the term for a musical expression repeated several times?
break or interruption in music
the lowest bass voice
What is the name of the Brazilian dance that is slightly faster than the tango?
popular cuban music
cha cha & mambo
What is the musical term for the simultaneous performance of variations on the same melody?
What is the name for instruments that produce sound when the skin stretched across a chamber of air is struck?
HORNBOSTEL -SACHS SYSTEM OF MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS CLASSIFICATION
Idiophones, membranophone, chordophones, aerophone, electrophone
What is the name for the unique and identifiable quality of the sound produced by a certain musical instrument
What is the term for a decorative note which is printed but not considered as part of the rhythm?
a term describing a lyric voice (soprano/ tenor)
Which of the following composers was labeled an Impressionist?
Which form of music consists of a recurring theme alternating with contrasting material?
The sackbut was an early brass instrument that evolved into this
modern musical instrument.
This wooden flute-like instrument features a lip, a fipple, and a windway.
A type of psaltery or zither, the name of this instrument literally means "sweet sound".
This ancient woodwind evolved into the modern oboe. The metal band surrounding the bell made it a handy weapon as well.
Two instruments played simultaneously by one person, this combination was often used as accompaniment for juggling or acrobatic acts.
The primitive version of this instrument was operated by delivering heavy blows of the fist.
This stringed instrument is featured in many Elizabethan compositions. Often equipped with several courses of strings, its distinctive feature is a half-pear shaped back.
Also known as the "vielle a roue" or wheel-fiddle, this instrument features a wheel cranked by a handle. Early instruments required two players: one to push the keys and one to turn the handle.
This instrument is often called a cornett. It can play as loudly as a trumpet or can approximate the sound of a human voice
This medieval flute-like instrument features a gentle, haunting sound. It is made from the horn of a sheep or ox.
This instrument looks and is played like a violin, but it is a bit larger.
This instrument is normally made of a black wood, is played with a double reed, and sometimes has a 'nasal' sound to it.
This instrument looks like a bed post and is played with a double reed that connects to the instrument using a bocal.
one of the few (if not the only) brass instrument which uses a slide, not valves, in order to change the pitch.
This brass instrument needs the player's hand in the bell in order to help control the pitch.
This instrument is commonly made out of a silver-coloured metal and is played by blowing across, not into, the mouthpiece.
This instrument is usually made out of a black wood, and is played using a single reed with a ligature.
This instrument is mainly known for jazz music. It is a woodwind, but made out of metal and it curves up near the bell.
This string instrument is too big to hold under a chin, so it is played with the instrument between the player's legs.
How many strings does a violin have?
How many keys does a piano have?
This resonant instrument is unusual in the violin family as it has not always had four strings (it used to have three and now tends to have four or five). It is also often used in jazz bands.
Translated from the German, this member of the percussion section means 'bell-play'.
A metal bowl with a membrane stretched across the top is struck with sticks with blobs of 'stuff' on the ends. Keys at the side of the metal bowl can be turned to pinpoint the exact tone required.
Which of these instruments would replace a tuba in a marching band?
Which set of instruments commonly play in a concert Bb pitch?
trumpets, alto clarinets and tenor saxophones all use a concert Bb pitch.
A tempo of sixty indicates what?
There are sixty beats per minute.
What country was Henry Purcel from?
Tchaiks final composition?
4. Who where the two most influential composers of the baroque period
bach and handel
Haydn was "father of?
Schuberts 8th syphony was?
Brahms 1st symphony is often called
beethoven moved to...
10. introduced the organ in church
Beethovens original country was?
one of mozarts famous operas
the magic flute
Stravinsky ballet that caused a riot in paris?
The Rite of Spring
manual or physical skills(skills)
growth in physical or emotional areas(attitude)
considers the whole body a percussive instrument
approach encourages improvisation and discourages adult pressures and mechanical drill, fostering student self-discovery
trademark teaching methods include the use of solfege hand signs, musical shorthand notation (stick notation), and rhythm solmization (verbalization).
"rhythmic gymnastics", eurhythmics teaches concepts of rhythm, structure, and musical expression using movement, and is the concept for...
includes love, high-quality examples, praise, rote training and repetition, and a time-table set by the student's developmental readiness for learning a particular technique.
Teaching methods help music teachers establish sequential curricular objectives in accord with their own teaching styles and beliefs
Gordon Music Learning Theory
General music courses that involve listening, composing, and performing for all students
Praxial components of music education
Spiral curriculum theory & Special education
the range of an instrument
romantic composer of The Barber Of Seville - Overture
composers of spirituals
hall johnson, william dawson, jester hairston
piece most appropriate for introducing the instruments of the orchestra to elementary general music students
peter and the wolf
The K-12 National Standards
1. Content Standard: Singing, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music2. Content Standard: Performing on instruments, alone and with others, a varied repertoire of music3. Content Standard: Improvising melodies, variations, and accompaniments4. Content Standard: Composing and arranging music within specified guidelines5. Content Standard: Reading and notating music6. Content Standard: Listening to, analyzing, and describing music7. Content Standard: Evaluating music and music performances8. Content Standard: Understanding relationships between music, the other arts, and disciplines outside the arts9. Content Standard: Understanding music in relation to history and culture
(elem. school)Every student receives general music instruction each week for at least _____ minutes, excluding time devoted to elective instrumental or choral instruction. Music is woven into the curriculum throughout the school day.
(elem.)Instruction on string instruments begins not later than grade ___, and instruction on wind and percussion instruments begins not later than grade 5. For the first year of instrumental study, students are taught at least part of the time in homogeneous instrumental groupings.
(elem)For band, orchestra, and chorus, a library of music is provided that includes at least ___ titles for each type of group. At least ____ titles for each type of group are added each year.
40 & 15
(middle/junior high& high school)Every music course meets at least every other day in periods of at least ____
General music is required of all students through grade
(middle/junior high & highschool)A library of small-ensemble music is provided that contains at least ____ titles for various types of ensembles. At least ____ new titles are added each year.
An annual budget is provided for the replacement of school-owned instruments that is equivalent to at least ____ of the current replacement value of the total inventory of instruments.
Musical instrument digital interface
An instrument that converts sound waves into an electric current, usually fed into an amplifier, a recorder, or a broadcast transmitter.
1 full step
2 1/2 steps
country music is mostly noted as being from what city & state?
Lionel hampton was a famous jazz artist that played what instrument?