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45 terms

Adulthood and Old Age

Chapter 2
STUDY
PLAY
Life span perspective
The understanding that development is continuous from childhood to old age.
John Watson
founder of american behaviorism. claimed that childs future could be molded by environment.
Niche Picking
Idea that genetic and environmental factors work together to influence the directions ones life takes
Gerontology
study of aging process.
Organismic model
model that suggest that nature is the prime mover of development
mechanistic Model
model suggest that nurture is the primary force in development. development is continous
Interactionist Model
model that says genetics environment and individual play role in development.
Multidimensionality
part of interactionist model. means that there are multiple processes in development
Plasticity
Meaning that the course of development may be altered.
Perspective
Less formal term for theory. represents a position or set of ideas.
Reciprocal nature of development
Recognition that people both influence and are influenced by the events in their lives.
Ecological Perspective
Developed by Bronfenbrenner. Identifies multiple levels of the environment that interact with indv. processes of change.
Proximal Social Relational level
involves individuals relationships with significant others, peers, family
Sociocultural Level
Relationships with larger institutions like govt, and economic systems.
Adaptational Processes
Level including cognition, personality and coping
Life course perspective
emphasizes importance on aged base norms
Disengagement theory
Relationship between older individual and society were society withdraws support in indv. so person begins to dissengage.
Activity Theory
Theory that claims that its harmful to force older adults from social roles.
Continuity theory
theory that says that older adults will suffer a loss of well being if forced out of social roles.
Modernization Hypothesis
Idea that the increasing urbanization has led to lower social value for older people.
Multiple jeopardy stereotype
Additional biases are seen with minority groups particularly women beyond ageism
Age as lever view
As people get older age overrides the other isms
Inoculation Hypothesis
Older minorities and women have become immune to the effects of ageism to years of exposure.
Social clock
the normative expectations for the ages at which major life events should occur.
Ericksons Psychosocial theory
Theory that says that person goes through 8 stages. each stage is defined as a crisis that challenges the indv. ego.
Epigenetic principle
Each stage unfolds from the previous stage according to a predestined order
Trust vs. mistrust
early infancy. Strength is hope.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
toddler. strength is will
initiative vs. guilt
early childhood. strength purpose
industry vs. inferiority
middle childhood. strength competency
identity achievement vs identity diffusion
adolescence. stage where you have an unclear sense of self. strength fidelity
intimacy vs. isolation
young adult. establishing a mutual relationship with a partner. strength love
generativity vs. stagnation
middle adulthood. generativity being concerned with caring for the younger. stagnation is when indv. turn attn to people of their own age group. strength is care
ego integrity vs. despair
late adult. ego integrity when can look back at life and accept it. despair is feeling discontent with life strength wisdom
Piaget
theory of cognitive development
Assimilation
people interpret new experiences in terms of existing mental structures
schemas
existing mental structures
Accomodation
Change of existing schema
Identity process theory
Theory states processes of assimilation and accomodation can account for interactions between the indv. and experiences.
Multiple threshold model
Model that proposes that people pass through a series of steps of feeling old at different times for different systems of the body
Gompertz equation
mathematical function showing relationship between age and probability of death
Replicative senescence
loss of ability of cells to reproduce
Random error theories
assumption that aging reflects unplanned changes in organism over time
Cross linking theory
aging causes changes in collagen
free radical theory
unstable compounds that attach to molecules who then lose their function