39 terms

Human Relationships Key Terms IB Psychology


Terms in this set (...)

(8.1) Pro-social behavior
behavior that benefits another person or has positive social consequences
(8.1) Helping Behavior
behavior that benefits or intentionally helps another person
(8.1) Altruism
When one helps another person for no reward and even at some cost to oneself
-Biological altruism: Evolutionary Psychology
Psychological altruism: Cognitive Psychology
(8.1) Kin selection theory
Predict that the degree of altruism depends on the number of genes shared by individuals. The closer the relationship the greater chance of altruistic behavior
(8.1) Reciprocal altruism theory
Trivers (1971)
-the theory is an attempt to explain the evolution of altruism among individuals who are not related
-postulates that it may benefit an animal to behave altruistically if there is an expectation that the favor will be returned
-through mutual cooperation there will their chance of survival
(8.1) Negative-State relief model
Schaller and Cialdini (1988)
-argues that egoistic motives lead us to help others in bad circumstances in order to reduce the distress we experience from watching the bad situation
-though this theory appears to explain some behavior, feelings of distress do not always lead people to action
-this model does not accurately predict how one will behave-either altruistically or selfishly- in any situation.
(8.1) Empathy-Altruism model
Batson (1981)
-suggest that people can experience two types of emotions when they see someone suffering
-Personal distress (anxiety/fear) which leads to egoistic helping
-Empathetic concern (sympathy/compassion) which leads to altruistic behavior
(8.1) Bystanderism
not helping someone in need of help
-Latane and Darley
-Kitty G
(8.1) Factors that determine whether people will help or not
-Diffusion of responsibility
(reasoning that someone else can help)
-Pluralistic ignorance
(8.1) Pluralistic ignorance
when in a group, people often look to others to know how to react
-informational social influence
-Latane and Darley (1969)
(8.1) Social exchange theory
-Cost vs Benefits
-claims that human relationships are based on subjective cost-benefit analysis
(8.1) Arousal-Cost-Reward model (1969, 1981)
-emphasizes the interaction of mood and cognition in determining behavior
-arousal is the emotional response to the need or distress of others
-Arousal= motivational factor
-the cost-reward factor should be seen in terms of assessing possible cost and rewards associated with helping or not helping
(8.2) close relationships
relationship involving strong and frequent interdependence in many domains of life
(8.2) Interdependence
partner's thoughts influences self
Triangular Theory of Love
The triangular theory of love explains the topic of love in an interpersonal relationship.
-Robert Sternberg's theory describes types of love based
on three different scales: intimacy, passion, and commitment. It is important to recognize that a relationship based on a single element is less likely to survive than one based on two or more.
a hormone released by the pituitary gland that causes increased contraction of the uterus during labor helps prolaction
-released among men and women during sex
-"love hormone"
-hormone important in males' attachment and mating behavior
Theory of Reciprocity
-based on social exchange theory
-relationships are dependent on people's perceptions of rewards and costs
-self enchancement: helping a partner making self feel better
-self verification:people seek feedback that matches and supports their self-concepts
-Markey et al (2007)
Origins of attraction: SCLA
Festinger et al (1950)- found that friendships in a dormitory tended to form among those who lived near each other
Nahemow and Lawton (1975)-homes for the elderly and on college campuses the distances between rooms predicted friendship and attraction
Schachter (1959)-we compare out feeling and reactions to other so that er can better understand oursleves
Zajonc (1971)-interaction provides us with a sense of connectedness and attachment
Social Penetration Theory
argues that close relationships are formed by a gradual process of self disclosure
-closeness develops if the participants proceed in a gradual manner from superficial to intimate levels of communication and this is associated with attraction
is the sharing of facts about one's life with a loved one, as well as inner thoughts, feelings, and emotions
-leads to self-validation
Overlapping speech
women tend to use more language tags
-alongside the main speaker
Social exchange theory
argues that relationships are maintained through a cost benefit analysis
-a relationship will only endure when it is considered profitable for both parties
-helps to explain ehy some relationships end
Equity theory
perception of equality is what determines whether a relationship will be maintained
Patterns of accomodation
process of responding to a partner's negative behavior
Constructive accomdation
discussing problems honestly and waiting to improve the situation naturally and forgiving
Destructive accommodations
-silent treatment
-accounting past failures
-physical avoidance
Fatal Attraction theory
the same trait that initially caused attraction ultimately leads to the dissolutionof the relationship
any sequence of behavior in which the goal is to dominate or harm another individuals
aggressive act in which the actor or perpetrator abuses individuals directly or indirectly
low base-rate behavior
difficult to observe and easy to miss violence
male hormone made to give evolutionary advantage implicated in both sexual arousal and aggression
Cultivation theory
argues that media violence gives children a perception of a world more holistic than it is in reality
inflated sense of own's self
obsession with one's self
personality type who cares passionately about being superior to others
deindividuation theory
the psychological state of deindividuation is aroused when individuals join crowds
self-categorization theory
suggest that people look for others in the group with whom they can identify
downward comparison
comparing yourself with people who are worse off