U3G1&2 Heredity and Reproduction
Terms in this set (23)
An organism's genetic makeup, or allele combinations. (ex. Tt)
An organism's physical appearance, or visible traits. (ex. hair color)
A trait that can appear in the offspring if one of the parents contributes to that trait. It will always show up.
A trait that can be in someone's genes without appearing in that persons physical traits.
The set of information that controls a trait; a segment of DNA on a chromosome that codes for a specific trait.
The different forms of a gene (the separate letters).
A condition in which neither of the two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive; therefore both traits will show up in the phenotype.
A process that creates a new organism by combining the genetic material of two organisms. (Two parents)
A process that creates a new organism (a clone) through ONE organism. (one parent)
When a genotype has 2 of the same allele. (ex. BB or bb)
When a genotype has 2 different alleles. (ex. Bb)
law of independent assortment
Genes don't affect one another. ex. Hair color isn't related to your height.
law of segregation
One gene comes from mom and one gene comes from dad.
sex cell that contains half of the genetic material needed to make a new organism. (ex. sperm or egg)
When an egg and sperm come together and form a zygote.
A cell that is formed from fertilization, that contains a full set of genetic information.
A process of cell division that forms two new (body) cells which have the same number of chromosomes (46).
A process of cell division that forms four new (sex) cells which have half the number of chromosomes (23).
advantages of sexual reproduction
diversity, organisms can adapt if environment changes.
disadvantages of sexual reproduction
time consuming, not many offspring.
advantages of asexual reproduction
fast/efficient, produces many offspring, offspring automatically get favorable traits.
disadvantages of asexual reproduction
no diversity, offspring can't adapt in a changing environment.
a chart used to trace a specific trait in a family tree. (if the trait skips a generation it is recessive)