31 terms

WH Ch 10: Industrialization & Nationalism 1800-1870

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Industrial Revolution
A period where major changes in agriculture, manufacturing, mining, transportation, and technology had a profound effect on the socioeconomic and cultural conditions of the times. 18th century, The shift beginning in England from making goods by hand to making them by machine.
* caused the emergence of a middle class & working class
Nationalism
Pride in one's country.
The belief that people should be bonded to others with whom they share a common language, ethnicity, culture, religion, history, and destiny and loyal to one another rather than to a specific king or empire
**caused revolutions in Europe in 183 to1840
Congress of Vienna
An international conference that was called in order to remake Europe after the downfall of Napoleon I.
Unification
Process of uniting
Queen Victoria
England who was key to the success of Great Britain in the 1800s.
Otto von Bismark
Prime minister of Prussia that oversaw the unification of Germany
Giuseppe Garibaldi
An Italian activist that originally joined Mazzini in wanting the unification of Italy.
capital
a ready supply of money for investing into a business.
cottage industry
Manufacturing based in homes rather than in a factory, commonly found before the Industrial Revolution.
industrial capitalism
..., type of capitalism occurring during the Industrial Revolution when capitalists were involved in producing and manufacturing goods themselves , often using mechanized and industrialized methods of production
entrepreneur
people who start new business opportunities with risk and make profits.
puddling
The process developed by Henry Cort in 1753 that used coke to burn impurities from iron ore
Miguel Hidalgo
- Mexican priest and revolutionary. Although the revolt he initiated (1810) against Spanish rule failed, he is regarded as a national hero in Mexico's struggle for independence from Spain.
Benito Juarez
Mexican national hero; brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including separation of church and state, land distribution to the poor, and an educational system for all of Mexico
romanticism
19th century artistic movement that appealed to feelings & emotion rather than reason.
James Watts
improved the steam engine
Robert Fulton
1765-1815) American engineer and inventor, he built the first paddle wheel steamboat, the Clermont, which lead to the development of commercial steamboat ferry services for goods and people
realism
A 19th century artistic movement in which writers and painters sought to show real life as it is rather than life as it should be
Compromise of 1867
agreement which resulted in the creation of the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary
1848 revolution
France's 1848 Revolt: Poor revolt (socialism spreading),. 2nd Republic born, bourgeoisie use violence to control the poor, but do reinstate male suffrage. Europe engulfed in revolt
Frankfurt Assembly
1807-82; personified the romantic revolutionary & nationalism. Attempted to unify Germany but failed.
Crimean War
(1853-1856) Russian war against Ottomans for control of the Black Sea; intervention by Britain and France cause Russia to lose;
* Destroyed the Concert of Europe & left Russia with no allies.
Factories created more jobs
workers had to work regular hours and do the same work over and over
Harsh working conditions during the Industrial Revolution
caused a movement towards SOCIALISM to DEVELOP
Why Great Britain Industrialized
Stable govt., money, natural resources, labor force
Foreign investors dominated Latin America economy
by draining raw materials while keeping them dependent on Manufactured goods
caudilos
Latin American leader of newly formed republics, gained popularity and support after struggle for independence, controlled new nations, backed by military and wealthy landowners
Toussaint-Loverture
freed slave leader who won control of Hati
1803 Saint Domingue proclaimed its independence under the name Haiti
peninsular
Spanish-born, came to Latin America; ruled, highest social class. Spanish born government and church officials who made up the upper class in the Spanish-controlled Americas.,
Jose de San Martin
South American general and statesman, born in Argentina: leader in winning independence for Argentina, Peru, and Chile; protector of Peru
Simon Bolivar
1783-1830, Venezuelan statesman: leader of revolt of South American colonies against Spanish rule.