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Politics of the United States
APGAP Chapter 15
Terms in this set (52)
What is the term given to the power of the courts to determine whether the actions of Congress and the executive branch are admissible under the Constitution?
When a court bases its decision or opinion on previous court decisions or rulings, that is called _________?
A Supreme Court justice who agrees with the outcome reached by the majority, but not with the legal reasoning behind the decision is likely to do which of the following?
Issue a concurring opinion
The Supreme Court hears cases from state courts only if they involve a __________ question.
Proponents of _________ believe judges should make bold policy decisions, even if it means charting new constitutional ground.
Advocates of __________ believe judges should consider the constitution a living document. Judges decisions should reflect the needs of contemporary society, rather than adhere too closely to past decisions.
The method of decision making in which an impartial judge or jury hears arguments and reviews evidence presented by the opposing side is known as which of the following?
The Supreme Court attempts to do which of the following when issuing its roles?
Follow established precedent
__________ is the authority of a court to hear a case first, thus determining the facts of the case.
How many judges currently sit on the Supreme Court?
What is the point of original jurisdiction for most litigation in the federal courts?
The U.S. district courts
Justice John Paul Stevens voted against the majority decision in the case of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission (2010). In the custom of U.S. courts he was able to express his disagreement in ___________.
Which of the following is in the original jurisdiction of the Supreme Court?
Cases prosecuting diplomats
The __________ Act of 1789 established the basic three-tiered structure of the federal court system.
The principle of judicial review was first established in writing in the supreme court decision of __________.
Marbury v. Madison
Who represents the federal government in appeals to the Supreme Court?
Congress has empowered the U.S. __________ to review all final decisions of district courts except in rare instances in which the law provides for direct review by the supreme court.
Court of appeals
In constitutional interpretations, the phrase "original intent" or "original jurisdiction" refers to an approach which interprets the Constitution __________.
Narrowly, based on the explicit purposes of its authors
For a case to be heard in the Supreme Court, a minimum of how many justices must vote to hear the case?
Which courts was one of the most active in shaping public policy in the 20th Century?
The federal court consists of three levels of courts: the Supreme Court, court of appeals, and the __________ courts.
Which of the following must confirm all federal judges?
The member of the justice department who handles all Supreme Court appeals from the U.S. government is _________.
Under which of the following circumstances would a presidential nominee to the Supreme Court have the most trouble being confirmed?
When in president's party affiliation is in the minority in the Senate
In a process known as __________, the senate generally allows senators of the president's party from the state in which a judicial vacancy occurs to block the nomination.
The self imposed limitation on judicial power by judges deferring to the policy judgements of elected branches of government is called _________.
Judicial self restraint
What is common law?
The accumulation of judicial decisions about legal issues
Brown v. Board of Education (1954) is an example of _________.
The Supreme Court's overruling of a precedent
A writ of _________ is issued by the Supreme Court when it agrees to hear a case.
Federal district court judges are appointed to _________ terms.
Which if the following best describes a precedent?
When a prior ruling sets the standard for future rulings of a similar type
Often the president conducts with members of Congress to get their opinions about his potential appointees to the Supreme Court in order to ensure a smooth confirmation. This is called ___________.
Civil suits are different from criminal suits in that they ___________.
Involve establishing guilt and assessing monetary damages
An oral argument ________.
Is opposing lawyers presenting their cases in thirty minutes
The original Founders of the Constitution are frequently referred to as _________.
The most powerful tools available to the opposition hoping to block judicial appointments in the senate are the _________.
Filibuster and the senatorial courtesy
What happens when a president engages in "court-packing"?
The president appoints additional judges to the Supreme Court in order to avoid a piece of legislation being declared unconstitutional
In a(n) ________ judicial system, the judge plays a relatively passive role as attorneys provide zealous representation and advocacy to protect each side's interests.
Why does the US Supreme Court generally refer to precedent decisions made by earlier justices in the court?
The practice fosters stability in the law
If the members of a state's chapter of the US student association determine the their group will be affected by a Supreme Court case, what is the best way for this group to influence the court's decision?
Submit an amicus curiae (friend of the Court) brief
Why do statues and paintings typically depict justice as blind, representing its standard?
Because everyone is equal under the law
In Griswold v. Connecticut (1965), the Supreme Court struck down state laws outlawing the use of contraceptives on the basis of privacy rights. The fact that the court relied on a right to privacy that is not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution reflects __________.
The view that the Court's interpretation of the constitution needs to change with the times
Amicus curiae is best characterized as __________.
An interested person or group submitting a brief even through they are not involved in the case
When considering cases involving civil liberties, the outcome can be influenced by ____________.
The personal ideology of the justice and prevailing public opinion
The Supreme court's opinion is best described as ___________.
A document written to explain the court's decision
In McDonald v. Chicago, the supreme court struck down the city of chicago's gun restrictions based on the second amendment of the constitution. The power of the court to strike down legislation deemed to be unconstitutional is known as __________.
Which of the following best describes the role of the solicitor general?
A presidential appointee who represents the federal government during oral arguments before the Supreme Court
The US Court of Appeals may hear only __________.
Cases first heard by the lower courts
The body of prior judicial opinions that develops from interpretations of the US constitution, state constitutions, and statutes, and provides guidance in the decisions of other similar cases, is referred to as ___________.
Precedent or case precedent
What is the process for making judicial appointments?
The president nominates judges, and Congress votes to approve the appointment.
Who was the first president in American history to nominate women and ethnic minorities to a majority of Supreme Court vacancies, leading to greater diversity?
The venue for the losing side in a lawsuit is to appeal to the __________.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
APGAP CHAPTER 9 VOCAB
APGAP Chapter 16 Vocabulary
APGAP Chapter 7 - Elections
APGAP - Chapter 5 - PUBLIC OPINION
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