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Biotechnology & DNA Test
Terms in this set (16)
Which of the following structures would most likely not encode a DNA polymerase that can add nucleotides in the 5' to 3' and 3' to 5' direction during DNA replication?
Okazaki Fragments because they are short, newly synthesized DNA fragments formed on the lagging template strand. They form short double-stranded DNA sections.
Which genetic rearrangement/mutation causes a protein encoded by the gene to be shorter than before exposure?
What is the correct order beginning with the earliest activity of enzymes involved in DNA replication?
Helicase, RNA Primase, DNA Polymerase, Ligase
If a messenger RNA codon is UAC, which of the following would be the complementary anticodon triplet in the transfer RNA?
During post-translational modification, the polypeptide from a eukaryotic cell typically undergoes substantial alteration that results in ________
A change in the overall conformation of a peptide
Explain how GMO's and plasmids relate
Plasmids are used to make GMOs. GMO's transform genes from other species to create a type of advantage. Ex. Insulin was made using genes from the pancreas of pigs.
How does gel electrophoresis work and what is an application of it?
It works because DNA is negatively charged. When the DNA receives the electric shock, it moves downwards through the agarose gel. The smaller pieces of DNA move farther.
Two applications could be to convict someone of a crime or to determine relatedness of two people.
What is recombinant DNA?
When the DNA has been transformed with another gene
What can CRISPR do?
It can change a species genes and how those genes are expressed in a living organism. The bacteria takes parts of DNA from viruses and uses them to make DNA segments called CRISPR arrays, which later disables the virus. It is being used to study the extinction of diseases such as cystic fibrosis and sickle cell.
What is the transformation efficiency?
35 colonies * .007 = 7,000 l/ug
Steps of performing a bacterial transformation
1. take e coli
2. place it into a permeable solution (CaCl)
3. ice bath & heat shock
4. mix it in with the new DNA
5. incubate it
6. place it on an agar plate
7. find transformation efficiency
What are the 4 nitrogenous bases?
Adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine
What is base pairing? Which base pairs with which? How are they held together?
It is the principle that hydrogen bonds form only between certain base pairs. Adenine pairs with Thymine by 2 hydrogen bonds. Cytosine pairs with Guanine by 3 hydrogen bonds.
The process of DNA being transcribed and translated into a protein
Transcription of DNA: A to U, T to A, G to C, C to G
Every 3 bases pair together to make a codon which forms an amino acid. There are 64 types of codons and 20 possible amino acids.
What is epigenetic? Give an example.
The study of heritable changes in organisms caused by gene expression using tags but it doesn't change the gene itself. It just affects how cells read genes. Ex: DNA methylation where a methyl group is added to a DNA molecule preventing certain genes from being expressed.
What are restriction enzymes?
They are enzymes that are helpful during bacterial transformations because they cut a specific gene out of the DNA.
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