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Pathophysiology Alterations in Urinary Tract Function Chapter 7
Terms in this set (56)
What is the loss of normal bladder function caused by damage to part of the nervous system?
What are risks for neurogenic bladder?
Spinal cord injury; multiple sclerosis, CAV's
What is the second most frequently occurring infection?
What are UTIs caused by?
Bacteria from the digestive tract commonly E. coli
What are risk factors of UTIs?
Being a woman
Benign prostate hypertrophy
Congenital urinary tract abnormalities
Improper personal hygiene
Using diaphragm or spermicide
What are the manifestations of UTIs?
Cloudy, foul-smelling urine
Symptoms of infection
What is inflammation of the bladder?
What happens in cystitis?
The bladder and urethra walls become red and swollen
What are the cases of cystitis?
Infections and irritants
What are the manifestations of cystitis?
UTI symptoms, abdominal pain, and pelvic pressure
What is the most common infecting microorganism of cystitis?
What is an infection that has reached one or both kidneys?
What is the most common culprit of Pyelonephritis?
What are the two types of pyelonephritis?
Acute and chronic
What are the manifestations of pyelonephritis?
Increased blood pressure
What refers tot he presence of renal calculi?
What are the type of renal calculi?
Which renal calculi is most common?
What is a uric acid calculi characteristic of?
Which calculi is rare?
What are the manifestations of renal calculi?
Renal colic (scraping and spasms)
Costovertebral angle tenderness
Fever/Chills if infection is present
What is the most common malignant tumor occurring in children?
What are the manifestations of Wilms' Tumor?
Vague abdominal pain
Change in bowel patterns (constipations)
What is the most frequently occurring kidney cancer in the adult?
Renal Cell Carcinoma
What are the risk factors for renal cell carcinoma?
Other kidney diseases
Metastases to what is common at the time of diagnosis?
What are the manifestations of renal cell carcinoma?
Abnormal urin color
Dull, achy flank pain
Palpable mass over the affected kidney
Unexplained weight loss
What refers to any cancer that forms in the tissue of the bladder
Metastasis to where is common with bladder cancer?
What are the risk factors of bladder cancer?
Chronic bladder irritation/ infection
What are the manifestations of bladder cancer?
Difficulty initiating urination
Weak urinary system
What is a common, nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate gland?
Benign prostatic Hyperplasia
What causes BPH?
Apoptosis doesn't occur as it should
What happens with BPH?
The enlargment blocks the urine flow
What are the manifestations of BPH?
Difficulty initiating urine stream
Weak urinary stream
What is an inherited disorder characterized by numerous fluid-filled cysts in both kidneys?
Polycystic kidney Disease (PKD)
What do the cysts do?
Enlarge the kidneys and compress tissue eventually replacing the functional kidney tissue
What causes PKD?
The exact cause is unknown
Who does PKD affect?
Men and women equally
What are the two kinds of PKD?
Autosomal dominant and Autosomal resessive
Which type of PKD has a mutation on the short arm of chromosome 16 and 4; occurs in both children and adults, but is must more common in adults; symptoms often do not show up until middle age
Autosomal dominant PKD
What type of PKD is less common and more serious; appears in infancy or childhood; progresses rapidly, resulting in end-stage kidney failure and generally causing death in infancy or childhood
Autosomal recessive PKD
What are the manifestations of PKD in neonates?
Large, bilateral, symmetrical masses on the flanks
What are the manifestations of PKD in adults?
Increased abdominal girth
Swollen, tender abdomen
Grossly enlarged, palpable kidneys
What is a bilateral inflammatory disorder of the glomeruli that typically follows a streptococcal infection?
What are the causes of glomerulonephritis?
What is a group of abnormalities characterized by an excessive loss of protein in the urine. Caused by a number of different renal diseases in which the glomerulus is damaged.
What are the manifestations of nephrotic syndrome?
Swelling or edema
What happens when the kidneys are unable to function adequately?
What is renal failure classified as?
Acute or chronic
What are the phases of acute renal failure?
What is the oliguric phase of acute renal failure?
Daily urine output decreases approximately 400 mL or less per day and waste products build up
What is the diuretic phase of acute renal failure?
Output increases to as much as 5 L
What is the gradual loss of renal function that is irreversible?
Many times this is a complication of the systemic disease process.
Chronic Kidney Disease
When does kidney failure take place?
With GFR less than 15
What are the manifestations of chronic kidney disease?
Polyuria with pale urine (early)
Oliguria or anuria with darkly colored urine (late)
Bruising and bleeding tendencies
Muscle twitches and cramps
Pericarditis, pericardial effusion, pleuritis, and pleural effusion
Congestive heart failure
Respiratory distress and abnormal breath sounds
Sudden weight change
Edema of the feet and ankles
Peripheral neuropathy, restless leg syndrome, and seizures
Nausea and vomiting
Fatigue and weakness
Headaches that seem unrelated to any other cause
Decreased mental alertness
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