LING Exam 3
Terms in this set (47)
How do speech errors give us insight into the structure of syllables?
In a typical speech error, replacement is in same position (onset to onset, etc.) not for example, onset to nucleus, and rarely onset to coda
What are the three problems that make it difficult for the brain to map from speech to linguistic representation in real time?
1. What does the brain need to accomplish in order to perceive speech, and why is this a hard problem for the brain (and for us) to solve?
2. How is the brain organized to accomplish speech perception (i.e. what have we uncovered about the solution to this hard problem)?
3.What happens when things go wrong?
bilateral damage to auditory cortex
cannot hear sounds, although subcortical hearing structures are not damaged
Pure Word Deafness
bilateral damage to auditory cortex
cannot hear words, although non-speech perception is okay
damage to auditory cortex
speech perception is okay, but recognition of non-speech sounds is poor
an intelligible synthetic acoustic signal composed of three or four time-varying sinusoids. Together, these few sinusoids replicate the estimated frequency and amplitude pattern of the resonance peaks of a natural utterance
a perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The illusion occurs when the auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound, leading to the perception of a third sound
What is VOT?
Voice Onset Time
the amount of time between the release of the stop closure and the onset of vocal fold vibration or voicing
What is categorical perception? As VOT increases, how do we perceive speech sounds?
the experience of percepting differences in language
EX) some non-english speakers may not be able to tell the difference between Rag and Lag
As VOT increases, responses decrease
What is the experiment with the baby?
High Amplitude Sucking
For babies, we need to use a pacifier hooked up to a computer to measure their sucking rate
What does this procedure tell us about infants' linguistic perception?
This can tell us if they notice a change in stimulus (sounds)
They start off able to distinguish all speech sounds
They develop categories within their first year of life based on the language(s) in their environment to distinguish only phonemes in their language(s)
What term did we discuss that refers to infants and their ability to distinguish any pairs of sounds, even those that do not constitute different phonemes in their language?
Infants are considered to be universal listeners
At what age do infants lose the ability to discriminate sounds that are not contrastive in the language they are acquiring?
Within the first year of their life
content words, open class
nouns, verbs, adjectives, adverbs
EX) cat, taco, book, crazy
function words, closed class
articles, conjunctions, prepositions, auxiliaries, pronouns
EX) the, she, you, and, but, behind
adds to stem, can change category, prefix/suffix
EX) -ness, -ful, -al, un-, dis-
adds to stem, NO change to category, ALWAYS a suffix
EX) -s, -ing, -ed
combining two (or more) words
ad from advertisement
reducing a word of more than one syllable to a shorter form
vacation in "They're vacationing in Florida"
the process of changing the function of a word, such as a noun to a verb, as a way of forming new words
the invention of new words
a mental dictionary
Four Hypotheses regarding mental lexicon
1) List of words
2) List of morphemes
3) List of morphemes and rules for their combination
4) List of morphemes and rules for their combination, and the exceptions
In a lexical decision task, what is the word frequency effect?
more commonly used words are responded to more quickly than rare words
morphological; just having shared letters (brothel --> BROTH) doesn't produce priming!
Masked Priming Task
subliminal presentation of the prime word; the participant typically does not consciously "see" the prime, but it still works
In a masked priming task, will the prime "teacher" facilitate the processing of "teach" (compared to an unrelated prime word, "shuttle")?
In a masked priming task, will the prime "corner" facilitate the processing of "corn"?
In a masked priming task, will the presence of "brothel" facilitate the processing of "broth"?
Somatosensory (perception of touch, pressure, temperature, movement, pain)
Broca's Aphasia in Broca's Area
Wernicke's Aphasia in Wernicke's Area
severe word finding difficulty during speech or naming, often with confusion among words similar in meaning
harms ability to repeat spoken words
Issues with production and grammar; Non-fluent, effortful speech; Articulation problems; Sound substitutions and deletions; Simplification of consonant clusters; Telegraphic speech; Unimpaired comprehension
Issues with word choice and semantics; Impaired comprehension; Fluent speech; Fast/effusive; Difficulty comprehending; Frequent use of empty words/fillers; Trouble finding the right words (circumlocution); Use of nonsense words; Syntactically well-formed sentences
In which lobe is Broca's Area?
In which lobe is Wernicke's Area?
Do Broca's and Wernicke's patients show deficits in writing as well?
What does the Wada test show us about processing in each hemisphere?
left hemisphere dominance in language on unimpaired participants
A dichotic listening experience that would produce a right ear advantage
A dichotic listening experience that would produce a left ear advantage
non-verbal sounds (music, coughs, traffic noises, birds)
What do dichotic listening studies tell us about lateralization and contralaterality?
first compelling evidence for hemispheric asymmetry in brain organization
What have studies with split-brain patients been able to tell us about lateralization?
Converging evidence for language as strongly left-lateralized function
Consistent with the main conclusions from classical aphasic research, and form Wada task and dichotic listening task experiments