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URINARY SYSTEM ANATOMY
Terms in this set (54)
This is a tube about 10 to 12 inches long that extends from the pelvis of the kidney. Connects the kidney to the bladder. This tube moves the urine into the urinary bladder by peristalsis. Has 3 layers: Mucosa, Muscularis, & Adventitia
This organ stores urine. It is a collapsible, muscular sac located in the pelvic cavity. It lies posterior to the public symphysis.
This tube is inferior to the bladder. It moves urine from the urinary bladder out of the body. In males, it also carries semen during ejaculation
The outer layer of the kidney
The inner layer of the kidney.
This is a thin, transparent, tough coat of dense connective tissue that encloses the kidney and lies directly on the kidney's surface
Renal hilus / renal hilum
This is a notch in the kidney where the renal artery and renal nerve enter the kidney and the renal vein and ureter exit the kidney
These are cone-shaped structures in the medulla. The medulla contains 6 to 18
Cortical tissue extending between renal pyramids.
This is the pointed end of the renal pyramid. This is where the collecting ducts drain into the calyx
Renal Minor calyx
This is a funnel-like structure. It collects urine from the collecting ducts at the renal papilla
Renal Major calyx
This structure collects urine from the minor calyx and empties the urine into the renal pelvis. (2-3 per kidney)
This is a chamber formed when the two major calyces merge. It is connected to the ureter.
This is a cavity within the kidney which is occupied by the renal pelvis, renal calyces, blood vessels, nerves and fat
Cortex region of the nephron that is composed of two structures: glomerular capsule and glomerulus
Glomerular capsule (Bowman's capsule)
This is a double-walled cup or capsule around each glomerulus. It receives filtrate and empties into the proximal convoluted tubules. #H
Parietal layer of Bowman's capsule
This is the outer wall of a Bowman's capsule. It is made of simple squamous epithelium and helps support the wall
Visceral layer of Bowman's capsule
This is the inner wall of the capsule that adheres to the glomerulus. It is made of podocytes
They have extensions called pedicels with openings in between called filtration slits.
Thin clefts between foot processes. #C
This is a knot of fenestrated capillaries that projects into the enlarged, proximal end of a nephron. It filters plasma and produces a filtrate which is further processed into urine.
Proximal convoluted tubule
This is the portion of the nephron between Bowman's capsule and the loop of Henle. It actively reabsorbs nutrients, plasma proteins, and electrolytes from the filtrate. They are then released into the surrounding interstitial fluid. It is made of simple cuboidal epithelial cells with tall, dense microvilli which make it look "fuzzy" when viewed in the microscope.
Loop of Henle (aka nephron loop)
U-shaped hairpin loop found mostly in the medulla. It is a continuation of the PCT. Thick parts of the loop are made of simple cuboidal epithelium while thin parts are made of simple squamous epithelium. The ascending limb delivers fluid to the distal convoluted tubule.
Descending limb of the Loop of Henle
Ascending limb of the Loop of Henle
Thin segment of the Loop of Henle
Thick segment of the Loop of Henle
Distal convoluted tubule
This is the portion of a nephron closest to the collecting tubule and duct. It actively secretes ions, acids drugs, and toxins and reabsorbs sodium ions from the urine. Coiled tube that lies in the cortex. It is made of simple cuboidal epithelium but without many microvilli. Thus, the lumen is "clear," not "fuzzy."
These CARRY blood directly into the glomerulus.
These transport blood AWAY from the glomerulus to a second capillary bed: peritubular capillary + vasa recta.
They are narrower so to restrict outflow of blood from the glomerulus.
NOTE: This restriction increases the pressure of blood in the glomerulus which provides the force for filtration.
Formed by modified cells of DCT epithelium and afferent arteriole smooth muscle. Responsible for regulating blood pressure. Consists of two types of cells: Macula Densa cells & Granular cells.
Macula Densa cells
Modified cells of the distal convoluted tubule. Act as sensors of osmolarity of tubular fluid. They are chemoreceptors that monitor the salt content of the filtrate entering the distal convoluted tubule. #1
Granular cells (aka. juxtaglomerular cells)
Modified smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole wall. Release renin when stimulated by macula densa cells. Act as mechanoreceptors that monitor the blood pressure in the afferent arteriole.
Brings oxygenated blood from the aorta to the kidney
Segmental Renal artery
Branches from the renal artery in the region of the renal sinus. #A
Located between the lobes of the kidney; run along the renal columns
Located at the "arcs" at the corticomedullary junction
Interlobular artery (aka. Cortical Radiate a.)
Located between the smaller lobules of the kidney cortex
Glomerular capillaries (Glomeruli)
These are located AROUND the proximal and distal convoluted tubules
These run parallel to the long, straight tubules of the nephron loop
Interlobular vein (aka. Cortical Radiate v.)
Located in the cortex; RECEIVE blood from the peritubular capillaries and vasa recta. #15
"Arc" over the base of the renal pyramids at the cortico-medullary boundary; RECEIVE blood from the interlobular veins. #C
Located BETWEEN the LOBES of the kidney. RECEIVE blood from the arcuate veins. NO segmental veins.
Connect the kidney to the inferior vena cava; these vessels RECEIVE blood from the interlobar veins. Takes deoxygenated blood away from the kidney
Inferior vena cava
Urinary Bladder Mucosa
It is the innermost layer made of transitional epithelium.
Forms RUGAE (folds) when the bladder is empty. Also has lamina propria (CT) that supports the mucosa. #A
Detrusor Muscle (aka Urinary Bladder Muscularis)
3 layers of smooth muscle collectively. Contraction squeezes urine from the bladder during urination.
Urinary Bladder Rugae
Folds in the urinary bladder
Urinary Bladder Mucosa (microscopic view)
Urinary Bladder Transitional epithelium (microscopic view)In mucosal layer
Urinary Bladder Muscularis (microscopic view)
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