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Terms in this set (26)
what drugs used for hypertension
diuretics, beta/alpha blockers, ace inhibitors, ca+ channel blockers
prototype drug for diuretics
what is the mechanism for diuretics?
increased water and sodium excretion makes for greater blood volume. this decreases cardiac output, therefore decreasing blood pressure, and peripher resistance, further decreasing BP
what is the prototype for beta blockers
how do beta blockers help hypertension?
decrease contractility and heart rate, thus decreasing cardiac output, which decreases blood pressure. Decreased bp = decreased sympathetic output, decreased renin secretion and decreased angiotensin II, and blood pressure is thus decreased
how does propranolol treat conditions
treats coexisting conditions: supraventricular tachyarrhythmias, previous MI, angina, glaucoma, migraines
what is the prototype alpha/beta blocker
how does labetalol decrease hypertension
blocks alpha receptors as well as b, so vasoconstriction as well
how is labetalol taken
iv and po, usually with other drugs, IV only in severe cases
what are the contraindications for labetalol?
av block, bradycardia, asthma, heart failure, use caution with diabetics, hepatic impaired pts, emphysema, or bronchitis
adverse fx of labetalol
orthostatic hypotension, sensitized heart after chronic use
what is the protoype ace inhibitor
how do ace inhibitors aid hypertension
decrease AG II to decrease peripheral resistance, which decreases BP.
Angiotensin converting enzyme
breaks down bradykinin which leads to decreased peripheral resistance
how else does ag II decrease BP
decreases aldosterone, which decreases sodium and water retention which decreases blood volume, therefore decreasing BP
when is captopril most useful for all pts
when used with a diuretic
what, besides hypertension, does captopril treat
Adverse fx of captopril
rare: hypercalcemia in renal pts, rashes, fever, loss of taste, neutropenia, angioedema, excess hypotension; simple cough also common
AG II Receptor blocker prototypes
what is losartan's mech of axn
blocks ag II receptors, thereby preventing vasoconstriction and aldosterone release
side fx of losartan
DUD-- dizziness, upper respiratory tract infections, diarrhea it's pretty much well-tolerated tho
what is eplerenone
selective aldosterone receptor antagonist (SARA)
how does eplerenone work
blocks aldosterone, so prevents sodium and water retention
side fx of eplerenone
contraindications of eplerenone
pts taking potassium, use with ketoconazole, erythromycin, other CYP 3A4 blockers
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