Unit 3 Exam in Human Resource Management
Terms in this set (102)
Decertifying a union involves:
1.) The same process as certifying a union.
2.) A decertification election generally cannot take place when a contract is in effect.
In a negotiation process, you should do all of the following except:
Focus on the other person and how to beat them
Research suggests that collaborative conflict resolution skills ____________.
Can be developed.
Acme Global is closing one of its plants immediately and laying off all 200 workers. As part of the closure, Acme Global will give each employee at the plant 60 days of pay and benefits. This will help Acme Global to be in compliance with the _________.
Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act of 1988
The process of restating a message back to the original sender in the receiver's own words.
Lindsey just explained a new assignment to Todd. He stated that he would begin work on it immediately. Lindsey said, "Just to make sure I explained this assignment correctly, could you tell me what you are going to do?" Lindsey is asking Todd to engage in the __________ process.
A third-party individual who makes a decision that is legally binding for both sides in a dispute is a:
Labor relations are first and foremost a function of:
Trust and communications
A strike is also known as a?
Because job satisfaction is ________ we can't directly measure it
Railway Labor Act
A 1934 amendment to the ______ created the National Mediation Board.
In the conflict resolution model, BCF stands for
behaviors, consequences and feelings.
The Workers' Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act requires that:
organizations with more than 100 employees give 60 days' notice before any closings or layoffs that will affect at least 50 full-time employees.
Kristen feels that her employer denied her promotion to discourage her from joining a labor union. If so, it is likely Kristen's employer engaged in unfair labor practices under the ________.
National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act)
This process generally provides a binding decision in alternative dispute resolution.
Antonia feels that her employer has interfered with the formation of a labor union at the company. If so, it is likely Antonia's employer has engaged in unfair labor practices under the ________.
National Labor Relations Act of 1935 (Wagner Act)
Active listening is also known as
A labor agreement that causes an employer to pay for more workers than necessary would be:
Landrum Griffin Act
The law associated with the right of all employees, not just union members, to receive and evaluate collective bargaining agreements.
Ex. Which law is associated with freedom of speech when it comes to union activities?
Alternative Dispute Resolution
Mediation and arbitration are processes that are typically used in
When states pass "right-to-work" laws, they specifically make ______ illegal.
When you _______ your message, it helps if the receiver takes notes.
Acme Global hired a contractor to replace all the carpeting in their executive offices. The company and the contractor agreed on a set price for the carpet installation. As the old carpet was removed, one of the Acme Global executives noticed that some subflooring needed replacing. He pointed it out to the contractor, who later fixed the subfloor along with the carpeting, under the assumption that this is what the company desired. The final bill to Acme Global included the original set price for the carpet installation plus the cost of replacing the subfloor. Even though the subfloor was outside the scope of the original contract, Acme Global and the contractor have a _________ contract for the subfloor.
A court-ordered implied agreement to prevent one party in an action from benefiting at an expense of another party is a(n)
In ________, the users attempt to resolve the conflict by working together to find a successful solution for everyone.
WARN only applied to employers who
Employ over 100 people and lay off 50 or more people
Under the Landrum-Griffin Act, the union constitution, bylaws, and _____ must be filed with the federal government.
Annual financial reports
The Faces Scale
For a quick analysis of the basic level of job satisfaction in an organization, ______ is the best tool.
What percent of employees in a bargaining unit must sign authorization cards for the NLRB to hold a union representation election?
________________ is to a large extent based on personality and perception, so it can be changed.
Melissa is working on improving active listening and is trying to build trust and rapport with coworkers. As she improves her relationships at work, she may also improve her ____________.
Emily and the other department managers have been told that they only have a limited amount of money available for the coming year, so she is working on the budget and trying to figure out how she can get more money for her Marketing Department at the expense of the Production Manager and his department. What type of conflict resolution style is Emily participating in?
Ryan feels strongly that an expansion into a new market would be a disaster for the organization right now. While others are talking about the opportunities that are available through an expansion, Ryan is using his authority as an expert on the product line to shoot down everyone's argument. It appears Ryan is using a(n) ________ conflict management style.
Employees with the personality traits of optimism and positive self-esteem tend to have ________ job satisfaction.
An illegal union contract mechanism requiring companies to hire only union members to work in their facility would be a(n) _____ agreement.
Managers should be careful when phrasing communications with others to avoid creating a __________________ when none is intended.
A micro-bargaining unit of speech therapists in public schools includes 75 employees, of which only 30 vote in the union election. How many votes does the union need to be successful?
One of the areas where evidence shows that most college grads are falling way short is in:
Tom and Jerry are company executives, but they currently disagree about the company's overall goals, mission and objectives.
Under the Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification Act, how many days in advance must notice be given of a plant closing or layoff of more than 50 people, if a company has 100 or more employees?
The _____ Act covers some aspects of union activities, such as strikes, rates of pay, working conditions and work rules in the airline industry.
Administrative law judge
When complaints of unfair labor practices cannot be settled, who typically hears the cases?
After James reported misappropriation of assets to the hospital's administrators, his supervisor started scheduling him to work undesirable shifts when he could not adequately perform his duties. James eventually quit his job.
Management suspects it was Ramon who tipped off a safety inspector that one of the managers had hidden chemicals from the lab in the trunk of his car until the inspection was completed. After the inspection, managers began changing Ramon's schedule and job duties daily. Ramon found that he could not plan for his children to be cared for while he was at work because his work schedule kept changing. Eventually, Ramon quit. It is likely Ramon experienced __________ discharge.
In a meeting to decide which color to paint the new executive offices, Macy feels like time is being wasted. All the colors are fine. She would prefer the beige, but she knows she will be fine with any of the choices. When the group decides to paint the offices taupe, she agrees. It appears Macy is using a(n) ________ conflict management style.
This process generally provides a binding decision in alternative dispute resolution.
**Basically acts like a judge in a civil hearing.
No threats, interrogations, no promises, no spying
The "NO TIPS" rule means:
Job dissatisfaction is directly related to all but which one of the following?
Under the NLRA, all of the following are unfair labor practices on the part of management EXCEPT:
A. interfering with or restraining employees in the exercise of their labor rights.
B. refusing to bargain collectively with the employees' representatives.
D. interfering with formation or administration of any labor organization.
E. discharging or otherwise discriminating against employees because they file charges under the NLRA.
C. discussing the disadvantages of union membership with employees.
A ______________________ is a small part of the employer's workforce with union representation.
Non-Union Employee Representation
Gives employee representatives a voice in such things as working conditions, pay and benefits, job security policies, promotion, and grievance resolution.
Kayla just celebrated her 50th birthday and her 20th year working for her organization. Her celebration was dampened when the organization fired her and replaced her with a younger worker whom the organization could pay less. It is likely Kayla experienced __________ discharge.
The process of teaching employees the skills necessary to perform a job.
Ongoing education to improve knowledge & skills for present and future jobs.
Any relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience or practice.
-Provides visible evidence of what the employee has learned so far because they can change the way they act.
Model identifying the knowledge, skills, and abilities (known in HR as KSAs) needed to perform a particular job in the organization.
-Identifies what type of training a new employee will need.
Ongoing education to improve knowledge and skills for present and future jobs.
-Designed to to teach workers how to move up in the organization in the future by becoming moire skilled at those tasks.
Process of identifying, measuring, managing, and developing the performance of the human resources in an organization.
The ongoing process of evaluating employee performance.
Steps: Exhibit 8-1 Pg 278
1. Job Analysis
-Organization mission and objectives.
2. Develop standards and measurement methods; communicate.
3. Informal PA-Coaching and discipline
4. Prepare for and conduct the formal PA.
REPEAT all steps if and when necessary
Why is PA so dreaded by managers and by employees?
1.) Lack of reliability (see next slide)
2.) Lack of validity
3.) If you don't have reliability & validity,
the ratings are not useful for development
-waste of time & resources
-Wrong decisions are made.
What are the variables that make up someone's performance?
Performance Appraisal Process
1.) Job Analysis: Familiarizing and knowing what the job is so we can properly evaluate the employee's performance.
2.) Develop standards and measurement methods: Distinguishing right from wrong. Then have a logical method to measure this for all employees.
3.) Informal performance appraisal-Coaching and Discipline: Appraising the employees is an ongoing process. Not a once or twice a year procedure. People need regular feedback in order to know how their performance is and which areas the individual needs to correct.
4.) Prepare for and conduct the formal performance appraisal: The boss(s) will meet with the individual in a formal manner, review the previous year prior and address anything.
Why do we conduct performance appraisals?
1.) Communicating (Informing): Provide an opportunity for formal communication between management and the employees concerning how the organization believes each employee is doing.
2.) Decision Making (Evaluating): Allow management to make decisions about employees within the organization. This is based on the accurate information we get from communication.
3.) Motivation (Engaging): In order to produce greater job satisfaction and or productivity overall, organizations need to motivate employees.
4.) Evaluating and Motivating = Development: Two parts. evaluating and motivating.
-Evaluating: Assessing past performance.
-Motivating: Improving future performance.
The physical or psychological characteristics of a person. This are used to evaluate the person during the performance appraisal process.
The actions taken by an individual. These are the things that they say or do. Behavioral appraisals measure what individuals "do" at work, not their personal characteristics.
A measure of the goals achieved through a work process. This is used as an evaluation measure which provides management with an assessment of the goals that were achieved in a particular job over time.
Critical Incidents Method
A performance appraisal method in which a manager keeps a written record of the positive and negative performance of employees throughout the performance period. There is no standard form used.
Management by objectives (MBO) Method
A process in which managers and employees jointly set objectives for employees, periodically evaluate performance, and reward employees according to the results.
Narrative Method or Form
Method in which the manager is required to write a statement about the employee's performance. There is often no actual standard form used, but there can be a form, so it can be a method or a form.
Graphic Rating Scale Form
A performance appraisal checklist form in which a manager simply rates performance on a continuum such as excellent, good, average, fair, and poor.
Behavior Anchored Rating Scale (BARS) Form
A performance appraisal that provides a description of each assessment along continuum. This often includes a numerical scale that runs from low to high.
A performance appraisal method that is used to evaluate employee performance from best to worst. No standard form and not all employees have to be ranked.
360 - Degree Evaluation
An evaluation that analyzes individuals' performance from all sides-from their supervisor's, subordinates', customers', peers' viewpoints and of self evaluation viewpoints.
A personality-based tendency either toward or against something.
Mentally classifying a person into an affinity group and then identifying the person as having the same assumed characteristics as the group.
The Evaluative Performance Appraise Interview
1.) Make an appointment.
2.) Have the employee perform a self-assessment.
3.) Assess the employee;s performance.
4.) identify strengths and areas for improvement.
5.) Predict employee's reaction and plan how to handle them.
CONDUCTING THE APPRAISAL INTERVIEW
1.) Open the Interview.
2.) Go over the assessment form.
3.) Agree on the strengths and areas for improvement.
4.) Conclude the interview.
The Developmental Performance Appraisal Interview
PREPARATION FOR THE APPRAISAL INTERVIEW
1.) Make an appointment.
2.) Have the employee develop objectives and plans for improving performance.
3.) Develop objectives and plans for improving performance.
CONDUCTING THE APPRAISAL INTERVIEW
1.) Open the interview.
2.) Agree on objectives.
3.) Develop plans for meeting objectives.
4.) Make a follow-up appointment.
5.) Conclude the interview.
Electronic Performance Monitoring (EPM)
The process of observing ongoing employee actions using computers or other nonhuman methods.
Things a person in society is allowed to do without any permission required from authority. These are bestowed upon the individual based on their membership in the society.
Things that individuals are allowed to do based on asking permission from authority. In simple terms, you must earn the right.
Ex. Passing your driving test or good grades in school.
A.) Right to due process.
B.) Right to life and safety.
C.) Right to free speech.
D.) Right to privacy.
E.) Right to freedom of conscience.
F.) Right to free consent.
Right to Due Process
The employee has a right to known what they are accused of, to know the evidence or proof thereof, and to tell their side of what happened. Basically the concept of providing fair and reasonable disciplinary actions as consequences of an employee's behavior.
Right to Life and Safety
Every employee within the organization has a right to be protected from harm, to the best of the organization's ability. In 1948, the United Nations declared that every individual has the right to life, liberty, and security of person (personal safety).
Right to Free Speech (Limited)
The First Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees the right to freedom of speech. Only applies to the government not being allowed to control free speech. In the workplace, that is limited, employees are legally allowed to blow the whistle if the organization is participating in any illegal activities without being fired.
Right to Privacy (Limited)
This right protects people from unreasonable or unwarranted intrusions into personal affairs. This general right to privacy would include the employee's right to have their personnel files, other employee records, and/or private areas of their workplace kept private, to an extent.
Right of Freedom of Conscience (Limited)
Employees generally should not be asked to do something that violates their personal values and beliefs, as long as these beliefs generally reflect commonly accepted societal norms. A person's conscience determines what that person considers to be right and wrong.
Right to Free Consent
The right of the individual to know what they're being asked to do and the consequences of that action to the individual or others, either inside or outside the organization. People shouldn't be forced , manipulated, or deceived into working in situations that could cause harm. The organization's duty is to ensure that the individual voluntarily agrees to do a particular job or task.
1.) Data and device Policies.
2.) Workplace Monitoring.
3.) Drug Testing.
4.) Orientation Probationary Period.
6.) Codes of conduct.
Data and Device Policies
Employers have the right to create workplace policies to protect organizational data and ti maintain control of their networks.
Bring Your Own Device (BYOD) is becoming more common and has both pros and cons:
1. Can increase employee satisfaction.
2. Can help recruit new employees.
3. Can strengthen work-life balance.
4. It reduces computer hardware costs for the organization.
1. Multiple security risks such as leaks, hacks, lost devices, etc.
2. Mixing company and personal property.
3. Employee privacy concerns.
4. Employees who leave the organization with company information still on their device.
Managers have the right to monitor the workplace to ensure activities are legal and ethical on behalf of the organization. Website monitoring is permissible, companies can undertake this in order to make sure employees don't defame the organization.
"Most employers have the right to test for a wide variety of substances in the workplace." Drug testing isn't required in most cases but employers can put such testing in place. Primary reason for this is workplace safety.
Orientation (Probationary) Periods
Organizations have the right to set up an orientation for new hires.
Concept allowing the company or the worker to break the work relationship at any point of time, with or without any particular reason, as long as in doing so, no law is violated.
Codes of Conduct
Managers have the right to create and require compliance with code of employee conduct. This identifies the ethics and values of the firm while serving as a guide to individual action.
Giving motivational feedback to maintain & improve performance.
(Remember that P = function of Ability, Motivation, Resources):
Describe current perf>Describe desired perf>Get commitment to change>Follow up
Giving employees feedback (so they realize that a problem is affecting their job performance) and referring employees with problems that cannot be managed within the work structure to the org's employee assistance program (EAP).
Giving corrective action designed to get employees to meet standards and the code of conduct
Refer to past fb > Ask why undesired bhv was used Give discipline > Get commitment to change & develop a plan > Summarize & state follow-up.
A process in which the employee with opportunities to correct poor behavior before terminating them.
Set of standard tests for fairness in disciplinary actions - tests that were originally utilized in union grievance arbitrations:
1. Did company give employee forewarning or foreknowledge of possible or probably disciplinary consequences of the employee's conduct?
2. Was the company's rule reasonably related to the orderly/efficient/safe operation of the business and the performance that the company might properly expect of the employee?
3. Did the company (before discipline) make an effort to discover whether the employee did in fact violate or disobey a rule or order of mgt?
4. Was the company's investigation conducted fairly & objectively?
5. Upon investigation, was there substantial evidence or proof that the employee was guilty as charged?
6. Has the company applied its rules, orders, & penalties evenhandedly and without discrimination to all employees?
7 Was the degree of discipline administered by the company in a particular case reasonably related to: the seriousness of employee's proven offense, and record of employee's service with the company?
A.) Clearly communicate the standards and code of conduct to all employees.
B.) Be sure that the punishment fits the crime.
C.) Follow the standing plans yourself.
D.) Take consistent, impartial action when the rules are broken.
E.) Discipline immediately, but stay calm and get all the necessary facts before you discipline.
F.) Discipline in private.
G.) Document discipline.
H.) When the discipline is over, resume normal relations with the employee.
When to Terminate (end employment relationship)
When discipline in the past has not worked & all options are exhausted
A.) Gross negligence
-Serious failure to exercise care in the work environment
--E.g., Left containers of hazardous materials in walkway in industrial plant
B.) Serious misconduct
-Intentional behavior that has the potential to cause great harm to another or to the company
--E.g., sexual harassment, bringing a firearm to work when it's against policy
A.) The process of influencing employees to work toward the achievement of organizational objectives
B.) Not the same as management (management is broader)
C.) Contingency theories (versus trait) - it's the situation
D.) Situational leadership
Hersey's Situational Leadership Model
Stages of the Change Process
When people go through four distinct stages when facing change, so we need to manage change through each stage. There are four stages:
1.) Denial: Changes are often difficult to understand or accept. So when people first hear that change is coming, they may deny that it will affect them.
2.) Resistance: Once people get over the initial shock and realize that change is going to be a reality, they often resist the change. This stage is so important that in the next subsection, we will present seven ways to help overcome resistance to change.
3.) Exploration: When the change begins to be implemented, employees explore the change, often through training-and ideally, they begin to better understand how the change will affect them.
4.) Commitment: Through exploration, employees determine their level of commitment to making the change a success. Commitment is necessary to implement change, but some employees will continue to resist change.
Overcoming Resistance to Change
1.) Develop a positive trust climate for change:
3.) State why it's needed and how it will affect people:
4.) Create a win-win situation:
5.) Involve employees:
6.) Provide support and evaluation: Managers need to know how to cope with changes in order to overcome resistance to change from employees.
7.) Create urgency: Move fast.
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