fish that live in fresh water but enter salt water to deposit eggs
What is anadromous?
fish that live in salt water but enter fresh water to deposit eggs
What is lateral line organ?
a system of sense organs found in aquatic vertebraes used to detect movement and vibrations in the surrounding water
What factors make a sustainable, commercial fishery? What type of fish can be harvested in a sustainable fashion?
fish that do not have long life spans because they are slow to reproduce
What is aquaculture?
farming of aquatic organisms such as fish, crustaceans, mollusks, and aquatic plants
What are some pros of aquaculture?
can create jobs, help feed the US and other populations, and increase knowledge and science
What are some cons of aquaculture?
can pollute water systems, can conflict with other users of water bodies such as lobstermen, fishermen or migrating fish, and can amplify and transfer disease and parasites to wild fish populations
How do coral live?
coral live when the polyp or coral animal is hosted within a cavity in the external skeleton
What are coral polyps and what do they eat?
tiny, soft-bodied organisms, related to sea anemones and jellyfish, that eat algae and zooplankton
What are the key factors in the energy flow of a coral reef?
must have an inflow of nutrients from polyps and an outflow of waste from symbionts
Where do coral polyps fit into the trophic pyramid for coral reef ecosystems?
eat zooplankton, symbionts that photosynthesize at the bottom of the food pyramid
Why are coral and coral reefs in decline worldwide?
climate change and changes in water quality
Why does global warming have a negative impact on coral?
water temperature increases and corals respond to the stress of warmer temperatures by expelling the algae that live within them, leading to coral bleaching
Why do coral need to live in the photic zone?
so their symbionts can photosynthesize
How can excess nutrients in water harm coral?
by causing algae to become too plentiful and smother coral colonies
What is hypoxia?
low concentrations of oxygen in an area that are bad for the marine life inhabiting the water
What is eutrophication?
when excess nutrients are present in water and cause algae in excess of what can be respired
What is the cycle of eutrophication?
excess nutrients -> sinking organic matter -> oxygen deficit -> nutrients cycling back to the surface -> increased algae blooms
What nutrients cause eutrophication?
addition of nitrates and phosphates through fertilizers, sewage, or other runoff
Why does runoff contribute to eutrophication and related environmental problems?
it brings the overload of nutrients into coastal areas causing eutrophication
What role do wetlands play in alleviating the problems that lead to hypoxia?
they can reduce the nitrogen transport to aquatic environments and can thereby reduce the hypoxia of water
Why are oxygen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay lower in the summer?
prolonged sunlight increases the eutrophication cycle and leads to more hypoxation
Why are oxygen concentrations lower in bottom waters than in shallow water in the Chesapeake Bay?
bacteria that consume the sinking organic matter take up the oxygen and lack of cycling prohibiting oxygenation
What is the role of bacteria in eutrophication?
sinking organic matter is oxidized by bacteria, consuming oxygen, and bacteria consume oxygen lowering the levels even further
How are deep water waves different than shallow water waves?
short period waves travel faster and long period waves have a longer wavelength
How does the speed of deep water waves depend on period and wavelength?
Which travels faster: shorter period waves or longer period waves?
longer period waves
Do longer period waves also have longer wavelength than shorter period waves?
What is the depth of wave disturbance for deep water waves?
greater than half the wave's wavelength
S = L / T S = 1.56 T L =1.56 T^2
Why do most places on Earth have two high tides and two low tides each day?
you get high tide number 1, then it takes 12 hours to get round to the other side which is half a rotation, half a day, and there's the second bulge, second high tide
For a given place along the coast, are the tides the same each day throughout the year? Do they differ from one week to the next? What's different about them?
no, tides are affected by the seasons, since the moon and sun are at different distances from the earth during different seasons
What are semi-diurnal tides?
two high tides and two low tides occur each day twice a day
For semi-diurnal tides, why is one of the highs sometimes higher than the other?
because of the sun's pull (spring tide)
What's the difference between the equilibrium and dynamic theory of tides?
equilibrium theory of tides stay in place and Earth rotates beneath them. dynamic theory of tides have complexities of coastlines, bays, ocean basin geometry, and Earth deformation
What factors are considered for the dynamic theory of tides?
Complexities of coastlines, bays, ocean basin geometry, Earth deformation
How are spring tides different from neap tides?
spring tides are strong, and occur when the moon is full or new and when the earth, moon, and the sun are aligned. neap tides are weak, and occur when the sun and the moon are not aligned, gravitational pull cancels each other out
You visit the beach on two days: one during a full moon and one during a quarter moon. Which day is expected to have a larger tidal range?
Why does the moon have a bigger affect on the tides than the sun?
the moon is closer to the earth than the sun
What is an amphidromic point?
the point of zero amplitude of one harmonic constituent of the tide
Why is amphidromic circulation counter-clockwise in the Northern hemisphere?
tidal crests move in a counter-clockwise pattern around the basins of the northern hemisphere because of coriolis effect
For amphidromic tidal circulation, what are co-tidal lines?
lines on a tidal chart joining places which have the same tidal range or amplitude
For amphidromic tidal circulation, what are co-range lines?
lines on a tidal chart joining places where the tide has the same phase
For amphidromic circulation in an idealized ocean basin, how long does it take for the wave of high tide to circulate around an ocean?
About how many amphidromic systems are there on Earth?
Why is it valid to think of tides as shallow water waves?
shallow water waves are less than 1/20th of their wavelength. tides have wavelengths of half the Earth's circumference and no part of the ocean is that deep
What is a sand budget for the beach?
a coastal management tool used to analyze and describe the different sediment inputs (sources) and outputs (sinks) on the coasts (used to predict morphological change in any particular coastline over time)
How is longshore drift created?
created as waves hit the beach at an angle and over time transport sand down the beach
If the longshore current is generally from north to south on a given beach, can you say anything about the direction from which waves normally arrive?
waves must be coming from the northeast and striking the beach at an angle
Which of the following is/are true: a) Catadromous fishes use gills for gas exchange, whereas anadromousfishes do not. b) Anadromous fishes spawn where they normally live. c) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn. d) Catadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn. e) (d) and (a)
c) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to freshwater to spawn.
Lateral line organs are used by fish to: a) extract dissolved oxygen from water b) remove carbon dioxide from the bloodstream. c) detect predators and other fish. d) all of the above e) none of the above
c) detect predators and other fish
Which of the following is/are True: a) The hydrologic cycle involves Evaporation b) We all affect the ocean. So, turning off the water when you brush your teeth and turning the lights out when youare not using them is a good idea. c) Coral turn white when they are dying. d) Some coral spawn by releasing all of their eggs on a single night of the year e) All of the above
e) all of the above
Coral: a) Don't need nutrients and sunlight because they are really just rocks and are not alive. b) Eat mainly Small fish and shrimp c) Obtain 98% of their food from symbiotic, photosynthetic algae d) Thrive in environments where suspended sediment is high, such as near river mouths e) None of the above
c) Obtain 98% of their food from symbiotic, photosynthetic algae
Corals forming reefs require: a) Clear, warm, shallow waters and sunlight b) High nutrients supplied in upwelling zones c) Abundant dissolved silicon for their skeletons d) Cold water and dark conditions e) a and b
a) Clear, warm, shallow waters and sunlight
Coral polyps: a) Mainly emerge at night to feed. b) Precipitate CaCO3at night while they emerge c) Can extrude their guts to attack nearest neighbors competing for space d) Are animals with plant symbiontsthat live within them e) All of the above
e) all of the above
Modern coral reefs appear to be limited to regions where the: a) salinity is between 10 and 25 o/oo b) concentration of particulates is high c) mean annual temperature is >20°C d) water depth is greater than 100 meters e) none of the above
Which of the following are true? a) Rainwater from State College ends up in The Chesapeake Bay b) Excess nutrients in The Bay, and other bodies of water, can cause Eutrophication, which means that dissolved oxygen becomes very low c) Hypoxia is primarily caused by strong winds, which blow away the clouds and evaporation d) All of the above e) a and b
e) a and b
Which of the following are true? a) Catadromous fishes use gills for gas exchange, whereas anadromousfishes do not. b) Anadromous fishes spawn where they normally live. c) Anadromous fishes migrate from saltwater to gyres to spawn. d) Catadromous fishes migrate from freshwater to saltwater to spawn.
d) Catadromous fishes migrate from freshwater to saltwater to spawn.
Oxygen Concentrations in Chesapeake Bay: a) Are generally higher in surface waters, because oxygen mixes into the water from the air b) Are generally lower in bottom waters c) Generally increase in bottom waters during summer when thermal stratification is strongest d) All of the above e) (A) and (B)
e) a and b
Excess nutrients in the Chesapeake Bay come from: a) agricultural practices such as fertilization b) industry and suburban environments within the watershed c) the gulf stream d) all of the above e) (A) and (B)
e) a and b
Nutrients that cause Eutrophication and, ultimately, Hypoxia include: a) Nitrogen b) Calcium c) Phosphorous d) Gatorade e) (A) and (C)
e) a and c
Eutrophication causes dissolved oxygen levels to be: a) higher in the winter, in part because bacteria migrate south in winter b) higher in the winter, in part because sunlight is stronger in winter c) lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is greatest in summer d) lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is weakest in summer
c) lower in the summer, in part because thermal stratification is greatest in summer
Which is/are true? a) Deep water waves are the same as shallow water waves b) Deep water waves can only occur in the middle of the ocean c) Waves are called deep water waves if the water depth is large compared to wavelength d) Shallow water waves can occur even in the deep ocean e) C and D
e) c and d
Look at questions with equations
A storm at sea will generate swells of varying period and wavelength. For a big storm, which waves will reach shore first? a) Waves with period of 10 seconds b) Wave with wavelength of 156 m c) Wave with speed of 1.56 m/s d) Wave with period of 20 seconds e) None; they will all arrive at the same time.
d) Wave with period of 20 seconds
Spring Tide occurs roughly every fortnight (14 days) because: a) The Sun is closer to the moon at that time b) The moon and sun act at right angles at that time, which causes larger tides c) The moon and sun are aligned at those times and thus gravitational and centrifugal forces act in concert to produce larger tides d) Tides are always larger at new moon
c) The moon and sun are aligned at those times and thus gravitational and centrifugal forces act in concert to produce larger tides
The Spring Tide during days 22 through 26 is bigger than the Spring Tide during days 6-8. What could explain this? a) The Sun is closer to the moon b) The moon is closer to Earth (Perigee) c) Earth is spinning faster then d) Tides are always smallest at new moon
b) The moon is closer to Earth (Perigee)
The tidal range toward the center of an amphidromicsystem is ____ the range at the edges of the system. a) of longer duration than b) larger than c) about the same as d) smaller than e) none of the above.
d) smaller than
The dynamic theory of tides: a) Accounts for ocean basin geometry and continents b) Predicts that tides move as shallow water waves c) Accounts for the Coriolis effect d) All of the above e) None of the above
d) all of the above
Eutrophication causes oxygen concentrations in Chesapeake Bay to: a) be lowest in surface waters, because oxygen mixes into the water from the air b) be generally lower in bottom waters c) increase in bottom waters during summer when thermal stratification is strongest d) all of the above
b) be generally lower in bottom waters
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