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Early River Valley Civilizations
Mesopotamia, Egypt, Phoenicia, the Hebrews, Assyrians, and Persians.
Terms in this set (69)
Powerful leaders that come from the same family
A group of states or territories controlled by one ruler
Different sections of land owned by the same country but ruled by different rulers
A region of city-states in Mesopotamia (agriculture based) that were home to the first civilization.
A region between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers that developed the first urban societies. It translates into "the land between the rivers." But its nickname is the fertile crescent. In the Bronze Age this area included Sumer and the Akkadian, Babylonian and Assyrian empires.
A geographical area of fertile land in the Middle East stretching in a broad semicircle from the Nile to the Tigris and Euphrates
A river in southwestern Asia that flows through the southern part of the Fertile Crescent
A river in southwestern Asia that flows through the eastern part of the Fertile Crescent
Epic of Gilgamesh
A famous poem that describes ancient Sumerian life. It is also among the earliest known works of literary fiction.
A set of 282 laws governing daily life in Babylon. They earliest known collection of written laws and were based of retaliation and revenge. "An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth."
A conquerer who defeated the city-states of Sumer. His conquests helped to spread the Sumerian culture even farther (beyond the Tigris-Euphrates Valley). He was the first emporer, and his empire lasted 200 years.
Temples built by Mesopotamians to honor the gods and goddesses they worshipped.
A form of writing developed by the Sumerians using a wedge shaped stylus and clay tablets. It was the first form of writing.
The most important and biggest river that runs through Egypt. It helped the Egyptians very much, by fertilizing the land around it with sediment, providing easy transportation, and was used for irrigation. The Egyptian population went up very much due to this river.
A landform made of sediment that is deposited where a river flows into an ocean or lake
"The gift of the Nile"
It was actually the southern part of ancient Egypt. It was mainly desert and not very good for farming/living.
It was actually the northern part of ancient Egypt, the area closer to the Delta. Good for farming and living.
Areas where the water was too swift and rocky to allow boats to pass, which protected Egypt from invasion along the Nile River. Think: small waterfalls
Also known as Menes, he united Upper and Lower Egypt. First Egyptian dynasty.
A major Egyptian pharaoh who lived for 70 years and did a lot of construction and expansion for Egypt.
A young king whose tomb was not raided yet was filled to the brim with riches, giving us an idea of how much treasure would be in the tomb of a beloved ruler like Ramses. Was the son of Akhenaten.
The father of King Tut, he made Egypt monotheistic for a while, believing in the god 'Aten.'
The first female pharaoh who expanded Egypt through trade. She had to rule as a man.
Also known as Ra, the Egyptian sun god.
The god that everyone believed in during Egypt's monotheistic period under Akhenaten.
Egyptian god of the underworld and judge of the dead, he was the brother/husband of Isis.
Egyptian goddess of fertility, she was the sister/wife of Osiris.
A government controlled by religious leaders.
Huge, pyramid shaped structures the Egyptians built as tombs for their deceased rulers. These structures also contained items the pharaohs might need in the afterlife.
The grouping of people based on rank or status.
People who worked the land or served the nobles.
Egyptian kings who were seen as god-kings.
A paper made from the a reed that grew along the Nile.
Also called hittites, they were group of nomadic invaders from Southwest Asia who ruled Egypt for a short period of time. They used chariots.
A military advance created and used by the Assyrians and Hittites (Hyksos), they were a two-wheeled cart pulled by horses
They traded with Egypt (cultural diffusion). Rich in iron ore.
The main kingdom in Nubia.
A huge stone slab inscribed with hieroglyphics, Greek, and a later form of Egyptian that allowed historians to understand Egyptian writing.
A smaller early civilization that developed a monotheistic faith that provided the foundation of modern Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
The father of Hebrews, he moved his people out of slavery under the Babylonians, where they went to Egypt and were enslaved again.
The Hebrew who led the Israelites from Egypt across the Red sea on a journey known as the Exodus.
A mass VOLUNTARY departure.
Forced removal of a people from their homeland. INVOLUNTARY.
The first 5 books of the bible and the reason we know of the Hebrews' early history.
A civilization of traders, not fighters that originated along the Mediterranean coast in today's Lebanon. The were remarkable shipbuilders and invented the first alphabet that was based on sounds.
An alphabet of characters intended to represent specific sounds of speech.
A set of letters that can be combined to form words developed from the phoenician alphabet.
Where the Phoenicians lived.
A region of northern Africa south of the Sahara and Libyan deserts
The Hebrew name for God.
Given to Moses on the mountain during the exodus; they were rules to follow. They were the basis for Judaism's civil and religious laws.
They came from Northern Mesopotamia, and were known as fierce fighters. They were related to the Hittites and used iron weapons, chariots, and military strategies like tunnels and ladders. They had one of the largest libraries in the ancient world and established a great empire, even taking over Egypt for a while. They were advanced artistically (optical illusions) and their capital city was Ninevah.
The capital of Assyria
What the Persians ruled by. Allowed conquered people to follow their own religion, language, etc.
Persian administrators, usually members of the royal family, who governed a satrapy (local governors).
The Persian who founded Zoroastrianism, which is the religion that believes each person chooses between good and evil--one's afterlife depends on the CHOICES one make while one is alive.
A road built by the Persians that was almost 2,000 miles.
To organize (laws or rules) into a code or system.
The wealth or resources of a country/region.
Containing substances that plants need in order to grow well.
An ancient Egyptian writing system in which pictures were used to represent ideas and sounds.
An official in a government department.
A form of social organization in which males dominate females.
A form of social organization in which females dominate males.
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