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Chapter 8: Gases, liquids, and solids
Terms in this set (23)
Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers
What is the first property of gas?
Gases are the most compressible of the states of matter
What is the second property of gas?
Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container
What is the third property of gas?
Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids
What is the fourth property of gas?
Molecular motion of gases is random
What is the fifth property of gas?
Determined by temperature and pressure
The state of matter of a substance is determined by what two factors?
Standar temperature and Pressure - 1 atm and 273 K or 0 degrees celsius
What does STP stand for?
Defined as force per unit area pushing against a surface
What is pressure defined as?
Atmosphere (atom), Pascal (Pa), Pounds per square inch (PSI), millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and torr
What are the common units for pressure?
For measuring atmospheric pressure
What is a barometer used for?
For measuring gas pressure
What are manometers used for?
Gases consist of very small particles moving about at random with no attractive forces between them
What is the first part of kinetic molecular theory?
The amount of space occupied by the gas particles themselves is much smaller than the amount of space between particles
What is the second part of Kinetic molecular theory?
The average kinetic energy (KE) of gas particles is proportional to the Kelvin temperature
What is the third part of the kinetic molecular theory?
Collisions of gas particles are elastic. The total KE of the particles ic instant. The pressure of a gas against the walls of its container is the result of collisions of the gas particles with the walls.
What is the fourth part of kinetic molecular theory?
The volume of gas is inversely proportional to its pressure for a fixed amount of gas at constant temperature (P1V1 = P2V2)
What is Boyles law?
The volume of a gas is directly proportional to its kelvin temperature for a fixed amount of gas at a constant pressure (V1T1 = V2T2)
What is charle's law?
The pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its Kelvin temperature for a fixed amount of gas at constant volume (P1T1 = P2T2)
What is Gay Lussac's Law?
The forces that act between different molecules rather than within an individual molecule
What are intermolecular forces?
Dipole dipole forces - hydrogen bonding - london dispersion forces
What are the three main types of intermolecular forces?
Attractive forces between positive and negative ends of polar molecules. These forces are only present in polar molecules
What are dipole dipole forces?
The temporary (short lived) attractive force due to the constant motion of electrons within molecules. London forces affect all molecules
What are london dispersion forces?
A hydorgen bond is an attractive interaction between unshared electron pair on an electronegative O, N, or F atom and a positively polarized hydrogen atom bonded to another electronegative O, N, or F atom
What are hydrogen bonds?
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