150 terms

Psychology Chapters 3A, 3B, and 3C

Myer's AP Psychology book.
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The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
Phrenology
Who believed that bumps on the skull reveal mental abilities and character traits?
Franz Gall
Your friend is taking her first psychology class. She comes to you saying, "I don't understand why
we are studying the brain; I thought this was a psychology class." Because of your background in
psychology, your best response should be
"Everything psychological is simultaneously biological."
Which type of psychologist most directly investigates the links between biological activity and our
thinking and behaviors?
Biological Psychologist
Dendrites are branching extensions of
Neurons
. The function of dendrites is to
Receiving incoming signals from other neurons
An axon is
The extension of a neuron that carries messages away from the cell body.
The longest part of a motor neuron is likely to be the
Axon
In transmitting sensory information to the brain, an electrical signal travels from the ________ of a
single neuron.
From the dendrites to the cell body
A brief electrical charge that travels down the axon of a neuron is called the
Action Potential
The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called
the
Axon
The slowdown of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the
Myelin Sheath
Which of the following are located exclusively within the brain and spinal cord?
Interneurons
As you are reading this question, the cells in your eyes are firing in response to the light coming
from this paper. Which type of neuron is carrying this message to the brain?
Sensory
The movement of positively charged ions across the membrane of a neuron can produce a(n)
Action Potential
The depolarization of a neural membrane can create a(n)
Action Potential
The axon of a resting neuron has gates that do not allow positive sodium ions to pass through the cell
membrane. What is this characteristic called?
Selective Permeability
Resting potential is to action potential as ________ is to ________.
polarization; depolarization
The selective permeability of a neural membrane creates a(n)
Resting Period
With regard to the process of neural transmission, a refractory period refers to a time interval in
which
dendrites transmit more electrical signals to axons.
The minimum level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse is called the
Threshold
An all-or-none response pattern is characteristic of the
Initiation of neural impulses
Increasing excitatory signals above the threshold for neural activation will not affect the intensity of
an action potential. This indicates that a neuron's reaction is
an all-or-none response
Neurotransmitters are released from vesicles located on knoblike terminals at the end of the
Axon
Sir Charles Sherrington observed that impulses took more time to travel a neural pathway than he
might have anticipated. His observation provided evidence for the existence of
Synaptic Gaps
A synapse is a(n)
junction between a sending neuron and a receiving neuron
The spatial junctions where impulses are chemically transmitted from one neuron to another are
called
a. neurot
Synapses
The chemical messengers released into the spatial junctions between neurons are called
Neurotransmitters
Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the
Synaptic Gap
Reuptake refers to the
re-absorption of excess neurotransmitter molecules by a sending neuron.
Within a single neuron the action potential
travels in one direction toward the axon terminals.
When the release of ACh is blocked, the result is
muscular paralysis.
Opiate drugs occupy the same receptor sites as
Endorphins
José has just played a long, bruising football game but feels little fatigue or discomfort. His lack of
pain is most likely caused by the release of
Endorphins
Alzheimer's disease is most closely linked to the deterioration of neurons that produce
Acetylcholine.
Schizophrenia is most closely linked with excess receptor activity for the neurotransmitter
Dopamine
An undersupply of the major inhibitory neurotransmitter known as ________ is linked to seizures.
GABA
Migraine headaches are most closely linked with an
Oversupply of gltuamate
The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the
neurotransmitter
Dopamine
Psychoactive drugs interfere with normal neural transmission. Where does this interference take
place?
Synapse
Some opiate drugs have molecular structures so similar to endorphins that they mimic endorphin's
euphoric effects in the brain, making these opiate drugs which kind of molecule?
Agonists
What are the molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a
dendrite and mimic that neurotransmitter's effects called?
Agonists
The brains of patients with Parkinson's disease have little dopamine. Drugs used to treat such
patients bind to dopamine receptors, thereby stimulating those receptors. These drugs would be
considered
Agonists
A person with schizophrenia may have an overactive dopamine system. Drugs used to treat this
disorder prevent the action of dopamine by keeping it from binding to its receptors. These drugs are
Antagonists
Molecules that are similar enough to a neurotransmitter to bind to its receptor sites on a dendrite and
block that neurotransmitter's effects are called what?
Antagonists
Botulin is a poison with a molecular structure so similar to acetylcholine (ACh) that it blocks the
effects of ACh in synapses, making botulin which kind of molecule?
Antagonists
The body's speedy, electrochemical information system is called the
Nervous System
Nerves are neural cables containing many
Axons
For you to be able to run, ________ must relay messages from your central nervous system to your
leg muscles.
Motor Neurons
For you to experience the pain of a sprained ankle, ________ must first relay messages from your
ankle to your central nervous system.
Sensory Neurons
Motor neurons are an important part of the
peripheral nervous system
The peripheral nervous system is to sensory neurons as the central nervous system is to
interneurons.
The somatic nervous system is a component of the ________ nervous system.
peripheral
Messages are transmitted from your spinal cord to your digestive system's stomach muscles by the
sympathetic nervous system.
When Mr. Valdez thought his 1-year-old daughter had fallen down the stairs, his heartbeat
accelerated, his blood pressure rose, and he began to perspire heavily. Mr. Valdez's state of arousal
was activated by his ________ nervous system.
sympathetic
An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the ________ nervous system is to the ________
nervous system.
sympathetic; parasympathetic
Stimulated digestion is to inhibited digestion as the ________ nervous system is to the ________
nervous system.
parasympathetic; sympathetic
While you are hiking in the mountains, a rattlesnake slithers across your trail. Which of the
following triggers the "fight-or-flight" response, increasing your heart rate and blood pressure, as
you run away?
sympathetic nervous system
Motor neurons are to the ________ nervous system as interneurons are to the ________ nervous
system
peripheral; central
While relaxing in a lawn chair enjoying a cool drink, which of the following triggers the "rest-anddigest" response, as your heart rate slows and digestion begins?
parasympathetic nervous system
A simple, automatic, inborn response to a sensory stimulus is called a(n)
Refkex
The strengthening of synaptic connections facilitates the formation of
Neural Networks
Neural networks refer to
interconnected clusters of neurons in the central nervous system
People can simultaneously process many aspects of sensory information such as color, shape, and
size. This best illustrates the functioning of multiple
Endorphins
The knee-jerk reflex is controlled by interneurons in the
Spinal Cord
Sheelah was able to jerk her hand out of the scalding water before sensing any pain because this
withdrawal reflex
was activated by interneurons in her spinal cord.
Hormones are the chemical messengers of the
Endocrine System
Endocrine glands secrete hormones directly into
The Bloodstream
The chemical messengers of the endocrine system are called
Hormones
After a car swerves in front of you on the highway, you notice that your heart is still racing, even
though you know you are no longer in danger. Why do the physical symptoms of fear linger even
after we cognitively realize the danger has passed?
Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages
The ovaries in females and the testes in males are part of the
Endocrine System
Epinephrine and norepinephrine are released by the
adrenal glands
If a professor accused you of cheating on a test, your adrenal glands would probably release
________ into your bloodstream.
epinephrine
Which endocrine gland regulates body growth?
Pituitary
At the age of 22, Mrs. LaBlanc was less than 4 feet tall. Her short stature was probably influenced by
the lack of a growth hormone produced by the
Pituitary Gland
Mandy came home late. As she reached to turn on the kitchen light, her hand brushed against
something unexpected. Her adrenal glands, as a part of the "fight-or-flight" response, released
epinephrine and norepinephrine, which increased her heart rate and blood pressure. Even after she
realized it was just the curtain, her excited feelings lingered. This example illustrates
that endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages.
At puberty, the hypothalamus secretes gonadotropin-releasing hormones (GnRH), causing the
secretion of gonadotropins by the pituitary gland. These hormones cause the ovaries to produce
estrogen and testes to produce testosterone. As the levels of these hormones rise, they shut down the
release of GnRH and the gonadotropins. This example illustrates the
feedback systems connecting the brain and endocrine systems.
Sleep researchers who are interested in brain wave activity are likely to use which kind of brain
scan?
EEG
Surgical destruction of brain tissue is called a(n)
Endorphin
A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
Destruction
The best way to detect enlarged fluid-filled brain regions in some patients who have schizophrenia is
to use a(n)
MRI
The concentration of glucose in active regions of the brain underlies the usefulness of a(n)
MRI
To identify which specific brain areas are most active during a particular mental task, researchers
would be most likely to make use of a(n)
fMRI
What is the main difference between an MRI scan and an fMRI scan?
MRI scans measure glucose levels in the brain, fMRI scans measure oxygen levels.
Which of the following techniques would surgeons use in mapping the areas of the brain responsible
for specific activities, such as movement or speech?
positron emission tomography (PET)
In creating more effective treatments for pain, researchers would use which of the following
techniques for identifying regions of the brain that handle pain?
lesion
Your life would be most immediately threatened if you suffered destruction of the
angular gyrus.
Which of the following structures in the brainstem helps coordinate movements and lies above the
medulla?
hippocampus
The medulla is to the control of ________ as the cerebellum is to the control of ________.
breathing; walking
The reticular formation is located in the
brainstem.
Severing a cat's reticular formation from higher brain regions causes the cat to
lapse into a coma
Which region of your brainstem plays a role in arousing you to a state of alertness when someone
nearby mentions your name?
corpus callosum.
Your ability to experience the physical pleasure of a hot shower is most likely to be disrupted by
damage to your
corpus callosum.
Which brain structure relays information from the eyes to the visual cortex?
hippocampus
Which brain structure receives information from all the senses except smell?
pons
The "little brain" attached to the rear of the brainstem is called the
thalamus.
Ellen volunteers during her AP psychology class to try to balance a yardstick on her two fingers.
While her eyes are open, she finds the task quite easy. However, when she closes her eyes, she finds
the same task almost impossible. Which brain region relies on visual information in coordinating
our voluntary movements?
cerebellum
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most
likely to have difficulty
playing his guitar.
After Kato's serious motorcycle accident, doctors detected damage to his cerebellum. Kato is most
likely to have difficulty
brainstem
Thinking about sex (in your brain's cerebral cortex) can stimulate a region of the limbic system to
secrete hormones. These hormones trigger the pituitary gland to influence hormones released by
other glands in the body. Which brain region influences the endocrine system?
reticular formation.
The neural system located at the border between the brainstem and the cerebral hemispheres is
known as the
reticular formation.
Which of the following is the component of the limbic system that plays an essential role in the
processing of new memories?
thalamus
To demonstrate that brain stimulation can make a rat violently aggressive, a neuroscientist should
electrically stimulate the rat's
amygdala.
Which neural center in the limbic system plays a central role in emotions such as aggression and
fear?
amygdala
If Professor Kosiba lesions the amygdala of a laboratory rat, the rat will most likely become
less aggressive
The secretions of the pituitary gland are most directly regulated by the
hypothalamus.
Addictive drug cravings are likely to be associated with reward centers in the
limbic system.
Olds and Milner located reward centers in the brain structure known as the
hypothalamus.
Animal research has revealed a general reward system that triggers the release of the
neurotransmitter
dopamine
Your conscious awareness of your own name and self-identity depends primarily on the normal
functioning of your
cerebral cortex.
Nerve cells in the brain receive life-supporting nutrients and insulating myelin from
glial cells
One function of the glial cells is to
provide nutrients to interneurons.
The occipital lobes are to ________ as the temporal lobes are to ________.
seeing; hearing
The parietal lobes are to ________ as the occipital lobes are to ________.
sensing touch; seeing
Which lobes of the brain receive the input that enables you to feel someone scratching your back?
parietal
In 1848, Phineas Gage, a railroad construction foreman, survived when an explosion drove an iron
rod through his head. The once friendly, soft-spoken Gage became irritable and dishonest. Gage's
case provided evidence that which region of the brain plays a role in personality and behavior?
frontal lobes
An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements is called the
motor cortex
Direct stimulation of the motor cortex would be most likely to result in
movement of the mouth and lips.
To trigger a person's hand to make a fist, José Delgado stimulated the individual's
Motor Cortex
While mapping the motor cortex, researchers Foerster and Penfield found that
body areas requiring the greatest control occupied the greatest amount of cortical
space.
By simply thinking about a move, which activates their brain cells, people may be able to move a
robotic arm. This best illustrates
neural prosthetic.
The sensory cortex is most critical for our sense of
Touch
Which part of your brain receives information that you are moving your legs?
sensory cortex
Our lips are more sensitive than our knees to sensations of touch due to which of the following?
A larger area of the sensory cortex is associated with our lips.
The auditory hallucinations experienced by people with schizophrenia are most closely linked with
the activation of areas in which brain area?
temporal lobes
A PET scan of a patient looking at a photograph of a painting would most likely indicate high levels
of activity in which brain structure?
occipital lobes
The association areas are located in the
cerebral cortex
The most extensive regions of the cerebral cortex, which enable learning and memory, are called the
association areas.
A stroke patient can recognize the sound of his wife's voice but cannot recognize her face when she
stands next to him. Which brain region has most likely been damaged?
the underside of the right temporal lobe
After he suffered a stroke, Mr. Santore's physical coordination skills and responsiveness to sensory
stimulation quickly returned to normal. Unfortunately, however, he began to experience unusual
difficulty figuring out how to find his way to various locations in his neighborhood. It is most likely
that Mr. Santore suffered damage to his
association areas.
The process of anticipating that you will be punished for misbehaving takes place within the
association areas.
When asked to describe a picture that showed two boys stealing cookies behind a woman's back, a
patient replied, "Mother is away her working her work to get her better, but when she's looking the
two boys looking the other part." Which brain region has most likely been damaged?
Wernicke's area
In 1861, Paul Broca studied a stroke patient he called "Tan." He was called this because as a result
of brain damage it was the only word he could pronounce. Based on Broca's early work, which of
the following brain regions is involved in speech production?
Left Temporal Lobe
Someone who has difficulty speaking after a stroke is suffering from which of the following?
Aphasia
Which brain area is primarily involved with controlling speech?
Broca's area
Which brain area is primarily involved with understanding and producing meaningful speech?
Wernicke's area
Which of the following best describes how the brain processes and controls language?
Subfunctions of speech (such as producing speech, reading aloud, and understanding speech) are processed by different parts of the brain.
If a blind person uses one finger to read Braille, the brain area dedicated to that finger expands as the
sense of touch invades the visual cortex. This is an example of
Brain Plasticity
The capacity of one brain area to take over the functions of another damaged brain area is known as
brain
Plasticity
Teaching a patient to regain the use of an impaired limb by limiting his or her use of the good limb is
called
constraint-induced therapy.
A person whose hand had been amputated actually felt sensations on his nonexistent fingers when
his face was stroked. This best illustrates the consequences of
brain plasticity.
The benefits of brain plasticity are most clearly demonstrated in
children who have had a cerebral hemisphere surgically removed.
The goal of constraint-induced therapy is to
rewire damaged brains by forcing patients to use a non functioning limb.
After Terry lost a finger in an industrial accident, the area of his sensory cortex devoted to receiving
input from that finger gradually became very responsive to sensory input from his adjacent fingers.
Plasticity
Recent brain research contradicts previously held beliefs, indicating that new neurons are actually
formed in the brain. What is this process called?
Nuerogenesis
Physical exercise and exposure to stimulating environments are most likely to promote
Nuerogenesis
The ability to recognize faces with the right hemisphere but not with the left hemisphere best
illustrates
Lateralization
The localization of a function such as speech production to the right or left side of the brain is called
Lateralization
Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the
Corpus Callosum
Psychologist Michael Gazzaniga asked split-brain patients to stare at a dot as he flashed HE·ART on
a screen. HE appeared in the left visual field, ART in the right. When asked, patients said they saw
ART