Chapter 16: Developmental Psychopathology
Terms in this set (46)
Three broad criteria to define line between normal and abnormal behavior
-statistical deviance: does it go against the norm
-maladaptiveness: does it interfere with their safety or the safety of others
-personal distress: does it cause the person distress or impairment
spells out defining features and symptoms for numerous psychological disorders
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
What are the two approaches to diagnosis according to the DSM
-categorical - either you have a disorder or you don't
-dimensional - there is a continuum of stress or severity in the disorder
the idea that disorders don't always look the same and there are different presentations that each person can have
the study of abnormal behavior from a developmental perspective; study of origins and course of maladaptive behavior
expectations about how to behave in a particular social context
societal expectations about what behavior is appropriate or inappropriate at various ages
proposes that psychopathology results from the interaction over time of a predisposition or vulnerability to psychological disorder and the experience of stressful events
your predisposition to something based on: genes, poor nutrition, different types of neurotransmitters
the "trigger" for the onset of psychopathology; any life event or series of life events that disrupt our psychological equilibrium that can serve as a catalyst to the onset of a disorder: i.e. divorce, losing someone, chronic illness
characterized by abnormal social and communication development and restricted interests and repetitive behavior
Autism spectrum disorder
When do symptoms of Autism Spectrum Disorder usually begin
What are some characteristics that can be noticed in infants with autism?
-lack of normal interest in and responsiveness to social stimuli
-failure to orient to someone calling their name
-preference for human over nonhuman stimuli
-failure to make eye contact
Who is typically diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, males or females?
What are some of the theories behind the development of autism spectrum disorder?
-abnormal brain growth and connectivity
-mirror neuron deficits
-executive function impairments
-extreme male brain
How do we treat autism spectrum disorder?
intensive and highly structured behavioral and educational programming
characteristics of children with externalizing problems
-lack of self-control
-act out in ways that disturb other people
-violate social expectations
-difficult to control
Are children with externalizing problems or internalizing problems more easy to notice
What are some disorders that are characterized by externalized problems?
-Oppositional defiant disorder
Characteristics of internalized problems
-negative emotions are internalized, bottled up
What are some disorders that are characterized by internalized problems
-severe shyness and withdrawal
3 categories of ADHD
-hyperactivity and impulsivity
-inattention AND hyperactivity and impulsivity
What are some suspected causes of ADHD
-most likely differences in brain chemistry
-frontal lobes do not function
-genes and environment interact
How do we treat ADHD
-medication (stimulants and non-stimulants)
What are some treatments for depression?
3 major types of eating disorders
Are eating disorders more prevalent in males or females?
What are some suspected causes of eating disorders?
-Western ideal of thinness
-Environment (family, insecure attachments)
-biochemical abnormalities (low levels of serotonin and dopamine)
How do we treat eating disorders?
-Maudsley method: family therapy approach (more lasting effects than individual treatment)
Suspected causes of substance use disorders
How do we treat substance use disorders
-individual or group therapy
-family based treatment
-Motivational Enhancement (as a supplement)
Why is adolescence a depressing period for some?
-genetic influences become stronger
-girls are more likely to experience accumulation of stressful events (ruminating)
Are males or females more likely to commit suicide?
What is the third leading cause of death for 15- to 24- year-olds?
When is the average onset of major depression
What percent of people experience some symptoms of depression but not enough to elicit a diagnosis?
Women are __X as likely to be diagnosed with depression
What is the most effective form of treatment if depression in elderly adulthood?
a combination of drug treatment and psychotherapy
progressive deterioration of neuron functioning associated with cognitive decline
most common form of dementia
Alzheimer's disease accounts for __-__% of all dementia cases
Alzheimer's disease is characterized by...
What are some early warning signs of dementia?
Mild cognitive impairments
-having trouble managing money
-having trouble remembering names, street numbers, etc.
What are some causes and contributors of Alzheimer's
Early-onset Alzheimer's is linked more to nature or nurture?
nature - genetics
How do we treat Alzheimer's disease
-no real cure
-memory training and memory aids
-behavioral management techniques
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